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wrbones
07-06-02, 09:37 AM
Just a few operations and a glance at our beginings




War of the American Revolution


Marines raise flag in Bahamas.
Waterhouse painting

American Revolution 1775-1783
President: George Washington
Commandant of the USMC:
Capt. Samuel Nicholas 1775-1781
Manning of the USMC: 131 officers, 2000 enlisted
USMC Causalities: Dead- 49, wounded-70
Weapons Used:
.75 cal. Brown Bess musket

In Congress, Resolve of 10 November 1775
"Resolved, That two Battalions of marines be raised, Consisting of one Colonel, two Lieutenant Colonels, two Majors, and other officers as usual in other regiments; and that they consist of an equal number of privates with other battalions; that special care be taken, that no persons be appointed to office, or inlisted into said Battalions, but such as are good seamen, or so aquatinted with maritime affairs as to be able to serve to advantage by sea when required: that they be inlisted and commissioned to serve for and during the present war between Great Britain and the colonies, unless dismissed by order of Congress: that they be distinguished by the names of the first and second battalions of American Marines, and that they be considered as part of the number which the continental Army before Boston is ordered to consist of."

Campaigns and dates:

Raid on New Providence, Bahamas Mar. 2-3 1776
Alfred and Cabot vs. Brit ship Glasgow, Apr. 6 1776
Second Battle of Trenton Jan. 2 1777
Battle of Princeton, Jan. 3 1777
Reprisal vs Brit ship Swallow, Feb. 5 1777
Hancock vs. Brit ship Fox Jun. 27 1777
Raleigh vs. Brit ship Druid Sep. 4 1777
Randolph vs. Brit ship Yarmouth Mar. 7 1778
Boston vs. Brit ship Martha Mar. 11 1778
Raid on Whitehaven, England Apr. 22, 1778
Ranger vs. Brit Ship Drake Apr. 24, 1778
Penobscott Expedition Jul. 24 to Aug. 14 1779
Battle of Banks island Jul. 26 1779
Battle of Majarbiguyduce Peninsula Jul. 23 - Aug. 13 1779
Bonhomme Richard vs. Brit ship Serapis Sep. 23 1779
Trumbull vs. Brit ship Watt Jun. 2 1780
Alliance vs. Brit Ships Atlanta & Trepassy May 28-29 1781
Congress vs. Brit ship Savage Sep. 6 1781
Hyder Ally vs. Brit ship General Monk Apr. 8 1782
Alliance vs. Brit ship Sybylle Jan. 20 1783
Significant Events:

First USMC Amphibious landing
First time American Flag raised on a facility captured by the Marines
Captain S. Nicholas was the first officer of the Sea Services who's Commission was ratified by Congress
The mission of the Corps of that time was to provide Boarding Parties, Landing Forces and internal security aboard the ship.


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Jump to Battle: Select Battle War of the American Revolution 1775-1783 Quasi War with France, or the French Naval War 1798-1801 War with Tripoli / Barbary Pirates 1801-1805 War of 1812 Battle of Twelve Mile Swamp (Florida) 1812 Battle of Quallah Batto (Sumatra) 1812 Florida Indian War 1836-1842 Mexican War 1846-1847 Commadore Perry's Expedition Harper's Ferry (Virginia) 1859 U.S. Civil War 1861-1865 (Both US & CSA Marine Corps) USS Wyoming in Straits of Shimonoseki (Japan) 1863 Battle of Salee River Forts (Korea) 1871 War with Spain 1898 Philippine Insurrection 1898 Battle of Tagalii (Samoa) 1899 Boxer Rebellion or China Relief Expedition 1900 Panama 1902 1st Nicaraguan Campaign 1912 Invasion of Veracruz (Mexico) 1914 Occupation of the Dominican Republic 1916-1924 Occupation of Haiti 1915-1934 World War I 1917-1918 2nd Nicaraguan Campaign 1927-1933 World War II 1941-1945 Police Action / UN Korea 1953 Lebanon 1958 Thailand 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis 1962 Dominican Republic Intervention 1965 Vietnam War 1962-1973 (Officially closed 1995) Operation Eagle Pull, Cambodia 1975 Operation Frequent Wind, Fall of Saigon 1975 Mayaguez Rescue Operation, Cambodia 1975 Iranian Hostage Rescue attempt Iran 1980 Grenada 1983 Beirut, Lebanon 1984 Occupation of Panama, Operation Just Cause 1989 Operation Sharp Edge, Liberia 1990 South West Asia, Kuwait Liberation 1991 Somalia 1991 Haiti 1991 Yugoslavia Non-combat operations

wrbones
07-06-02, 10:15 AM
Marine Corps Leadership
The Marines have always been recognized at producing good leaders. Below are some of the things that Marines not only must know, but they must demonstrate if they want to be a leader of Marines. All of these can be applied to any leadership position, whether it be as a Fire Team Leader, Platoon Sergeant, a Battalion Commander, a Fortune-500 CEO, or parent.

Leadership Principles
Know yourself and seek self-improvement.

Be technically and tactically proficient.

Develop a sense of responsibility among your subordinates.

Make sound and timely decisions.

Set the example.

Know your Marines and look out for their welfare.

Keep your Marines informed.

Seek responsibility and take responsibility for your actions.

Ensure assigned tasks are understood, supervised, and accomplished.

Train your Marines as a team.

Employ your command in accordance with its capabilities.



Leadership Traits
Dependability - The certainty of proper performance of duty.

Bearing - Creating a favorable impression in carriage, appearance and personal conduct at all times.

Courage - The mental quality that recognizes fear of danger or criticism, but enables a man to proceed in the face of it with calmness and firmness.

Decisiveness - Ability to make decisions promptly and to announce them in clear, forceful manner.

Endurance - The mental and physical stamina measured by the ability to withstand pain, fatigue, stress and hardship.

Enthusiasm - The display of sincere interest and exuberance in the performance of duty.

Initiative - Taking action in the absence of orders.

Integrity - Uprightness of character and soundness of moral principles; includes the qualities of truthfulness and honesty.

Judgment - The ability to weigh facts and possible solutions on which to base sound decisions.

Justice - Giving reward and punishment according to merits of the case in question. The ability to administer a system of rewards and punishments impartially and consistently.

Knowledge - Understanding of a science or an art. The range of one's information, including professional knowledge and an understanding of your Marines.

Tact - The ability to deal with others without creating offense.

Unselfishness - Avoidance of providing for one's own comfort and personal advancement at the expense of others.

Loyalty - The quality of faithfulness to country, the Corps, the unit, to one's seniors, subordinates and peers.



Troop Leading Steps (BAMCIS)
Begin the planning - if you want to succeed at something you must plan

Arrange for reconnaissance - decide what things need to be researched to make your plan work

Make the reconnaissance - do the research

Complete the planning - make final modifications to your plan taking the information you gathered in the previous step into account

Issue Orders - delegate tasks and authority as needed (see SMEAC below)

Supervise - make sure that orders are understood and followed



5-Paragraph Order (SMEAC)
Situation - describe what the current situation is

Mission - describe what the current mission is

Execution - describe how the mission will be carried out

Administration and Logistics - describe how administrative duties and logistical support will be handled

Command and Signals - describe who the persons in authority are and any special signals that need to be recognized



Three Leadership Styles
Autocratic (Authoritarian)

Democratic (Persuasion)

Combination of both



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wrbones
07-06-02, 10:17 AM
Creeds


My Rifle - The Creed of a United States Marine
by MGen William H. Rupertus, USMC Retired
(written following the attack on Pearl Harbor)
This is my rifle. There are many like it, but this one is mine.

My rifle is my best friend. It is my life. I must master it as I must master my life.

My rifle, without me, is useless. Without my rifle, I am useless. I must fire my rifle true. I must shoot straighter than my enemy who is trying to kill me. I must shoot him before he shoots me. I will...

My rifle and myself know that what counts in this war is not the rounds we fire, the noise of our burst, nor the smoke we make. We know that it is the hits that count. We will hit...

My rifle is human, even as I, because it is my life. Thus, I will learn it as a brother. I will learn its weaknesses, its strength, its parts, its accessories, its sights and its barrel. I will ever guard it against the ravages of weather and damage as I will ever guard my legs, my arms, my eyes and my heart against damage. I will keep my rifle clean and ready. We will become part of each other. We will...

Before God, I swear this creed. My rifle and myself are the defenders of my country. We are the masters of our enemy. We are the saviors of my life.

So be it, until there is no enemy, but peace!



NCO Creed
I am the backbone of the United States Marine Corps, I am a Marine Non-Commissioned Officer. I serve as part of the vital link between my commander (and all officers) and enlisted Marines. I will never forget who I am or what I represent. I will challenge myself to the limit and be ever attentive to duty. I am now, more than ever, committed to excellence in all that I do, so that I can set the proper example for other Marines. I will demand of myself all the energy, knowledge and skills I possess, so that I can instill confidence in those I teach. I will constantly strive to perfect my own skills and to become a good leader. Above all I will be truthful in all I say or do. My integrity shall be impeccable as my appearance. I will be honest with myself, with those under my charge and with my superiors. I pledge to do my best to incorporate all the leadership traits into my character. For such is the heritage I have received from that long, illustrious line of professionals who have worn the bloodstripe so proudly before me. I must give the very best I have for my Marines, my Corps and my Country for though today I instruct and supervise in peace, tomorrow, I may lead in war.



SNCO Creed
I am a Staff Noncommissioned Officer in the United States Marine Corps. As such, I am a member of the most unique group of professional military practitioners in the world. I am bound by duty to God, Country and my fellow Marines to execute the demands of my position to and beyond what I believe to be the limits of my capabilities. I realize I am the mainstay of Marine Corps discipline, and I carry myself with military grace, unbowed by the weight of command, unflinching in the execution of lawful orders, and unswerving in my dedication to the most complete success of my assigned mission. Both my professional and personal demeanor shall be such that I may take pride if my juniors emulate me, and knowing perfection to lie beyond the grasp of any mortal hand, I shall yet strive to attain perfection that I may ever be aware of my needs and capabilities to improve myself. I shall be fair in my personal relations, just in the enforcement of discipline, true to myself and my fellow Marines, and equitable in my dealing with every man.



Drill Instructor's Creed
These recruits are entrusted to my care. I will train them to the best of my ability. I will develop them into smartly disciplined, physically fit, basically trained Marines, thoroughly indoctrinated in love of Corps and Country. I will demand of them, and demonstrate by my own example, the highest standards of personal conduct, morality, and professional skill.

wrbones
07-06-02, 10:19 AM
Commandant's Reading List

Pvt, PFC, LCpl
Rifleman Dodd by Forester
Starship Troopers by Heinlein
A Message to Garcia by Hubbard
The Bridge at Dong-Ha by Miller
U.S. Marines: 1775-1975 by Simmons
U.S. Constitution
Fields of Fire by Webb

Cpl, Sgt
The War of the Running Dogs: The Malayan Emergency, 1498-1962 by Barber
The Old Man's Trail by Campbell
Ender's Game by Card
Uncommon Men: Sergeants Major of the Marine Corps by Chapin
Red Badge of Courage by Crane
Marine!: The Life of LtGen Lewis B. (Chesty) Puller, USMC (Ret) by Davis
Fire in the Streets: The Battle for Hue, Tet, 1968 by Hammel
Strong Men Armed: The United States Marines Against Japan by Leckie
The Buffalo Soldiers: A Narrative of the Negro Calvary in the West by Leckie
Soldier's Load and the Mobility of a Nation by Marshall
The Right Kind of War by McCormick
Battle Leadership by Von Schell
The Defense of Duffer's Drift by Swinton
Fix Bayonets! by Thomason
Battle Cry by Uris

SSgt, WO-1, CWO-2, CWO-3, 2ndLt, 1stLt
Band of Brothers: E Co., 506th Regiment, 101st Airborne: From Normandy to Hitler's Eagle Nest by Ambrose
Pegasus Bridge: June 6, 1944 by Ambrose
War in the Shadows: The Guerrilla in History by Asprey
Common Sense Training: A Working Philosophy for Leaders by Collins
On Infantry by English & Gudmundsson
Grant & Lee: A Study in Personality and Generalship by Fuller
How We Won the War by Giap
American Gunboat Diplomacy and the Old Navy, 1877-1889 by Hagan
Acts of War: The Behavior of Men in Battle by Holmes
Flights of Passage: Reflections of a World War II Aviator by Hynes
The Face of Battle by Keegan
Terrorism Reader: A Historical Anthology by Laquer & Alexander
Strategy Liddell by Hart
Maneuver Warfare Handbook by Lind
The Middle Parts of Fortune: Somme and Ancre, 1916 by Manning
We Were Soldiers Once and Young: Ia Drang, the Battle that Changed the War in Vietnam by Moore & Galloway
The U.S. Marine Corps Story by Moskin
The Military: More than Just a Job by Moskos
Operation Buffalo: USMC Fight for the DMZ by Nolan
Challenge of Command: A Reading for Military Excellence by Nye
Attacks by Rommel
Iwo Jima: Legacy of War by Ross
The Forgotten Soldier: The Classic WWII Autobiography by Sajer
Firepower in Limited War by Scales
The Killer Angels by Shaara
Tarawa: The Story of a Battle by Sherrod
Falls of Eagles by Sulzberg
Arts of War (Sun Tzu) by Sun Tzu
U.S. Constitution
Unaccustomed to Fear: A Biography of the Late General Roy S. Gieger, United States Marine Corps by Willock

GySgt, MSgt, 1stSgt, CWO-4, Capt
Battle Studies: Ancient and Modern Battle by Ardant du Picq
Guerrilla Strategies: A Historical Anthology from the Long March to Afghanistan by Chailand
The Breaking Point: Sedan and the Fall of France, 1940 by Doughty
Street Without Joy by Fall
Profession of Arms by Hackett
Battle for the Falklands by Hastings
Victory at High Tide: The Inchon Seoul Campaign by Heinl
The War of the American Independence: Military Attitudes, Policies, and Practice by Higginbotham
Once a Lengend: Red Mike Edson of the Marine Raiders by Hoffman
Maneuver Warfare: An Anthology by Hooker
Price of Glory: Verdun 1916 by Horne
Infantry in Battle (U.S.) Infantry by School
The U.S. Marines and Amphibious War: Its Theory, and its Practice in the Pacific by Isley & Crowl
The Price of Admiralty: The Evolution of Naval Warfare by Keegan
First to Fight: An Inside View of the U.S. Marine Corps by Krulak
The Dynamics of Doctrine: The Changes in German Tactical Doctrine During the First World War by Lupfer
Reminiscences by MacArthur
Company Commander by MacDonald
Mao Tse-Tung on Guerrilla Warfare by Mao Tse-Tung
Defense of Hill 781 by McDonough
Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era by McPherson
Panzer Battles: A Study of the Employment of Armor in the Second World War by Mellenthin
Company Command: The Bottom Line by Meyer
Semper Fidelis: The History of the United States Marine Corps by Millett
For the Common Defense: A Military History of the United States of America by Millett & Maslowski
Gallipoli by Moorehead
The Anatomy of Courage by Moran
Once an Eagle by Myer
Small Wars Manual by NAVMC 2890
Follow Me, Human Element in Leadership by Newman
No Victory, No Vanquished: Yom Kippur War by O'Ballance
History of U.S. Military Logistics, 1935-1985; A Brief Review by Peppers
Fortunate Son: The Autobiography of Lewis B. Puller, Jr. by Puller
Landscape Turned Red: The Battle of Antietam by Sears
With the Old Breed at Peleliu and Okinawa by Sledge
Douglas Southall Freeman on Leadership by Smith
On Strategy: A Critical Analysis of the Vietnam War by Summers
The Easter Offensive, Vietnam, 1972 by Turley
Airpower & Maneuver Warfare by Van Creveld

CWO-5, Maj
Morale: A Study of Men and Courage by Baynes
Grant Takes Command by Catton
On War by Clausewitz
Patton: A Genius for War by D'Este
Hell in a Very Small Place: The Seige of Dien Bien Phu by Fall
This Kind of War: A Study in Unpreparedness by Fehrenbach
Guadalcanal: The Definitive Account by Frank
Knight's Cross: A Life of Field Marshall Erwin Rommel by Fraser
Forward Into Battle: Fighting Tactics from Waterloo to Vietnam by Griffith
Che Guevara on Guerrilla Warfare by Guevara
Chosin: Heroic Ordeal of the Korean War by Hammel
George Washington & The American Military Tradition by Higginbotham
Reminiscences of a Marine by Lejeune
U.S. Marine Corps Aviation: 1912 to the Present by Mersky
Makers of Modern Strategy: From Machiavelli to the Nuclear Age by Paret
At Dawn We Slept: The Untold Story of Pearl Harbor by Prange
Dieppe: The Shame and the Glory by Robertson
It Doesn't Take A Hero by Schwarzkopf
History of Marine Corps Aviation in WWII by Sherrod
A People Numerous & Armed: Reflections on the Military Struggle for American Independence by Shy
Defeat Into Victory by Slim
Eagle Against The Sun: The American War With Japan by Spector
Command in War by Van Creveld
Supplying War: Logistics From Wallenstein to Patton by Van Creveld

MGySgt, SgtMaj, LtCol
One Hundered Years of Seapower: The U.S. Navy, 1890-1990 by Bear
Ultra in the West: The Normandy Campaign, 1944-1945 by Bennett
The Quiet Warrior: A Biography of Admiral Raymond A. Spruance by Buell
The Generals' War: The Inside Story of the Conflict in the Gulf by Gordon & Trainor
The Years of MacArthur by James
The U.S. Marine Corps and Defense Unification 1944-1947: The Politics of Survival by Keiser
Eagle and Sword: The Federalists and the Creation of the Military Establishment in America by Kohn
The Army in Vietnam by Krepinevich
Personal Memoirs of Ulysses S. Grant by Long
In Many a Strife: General Gerald C. Thomas and the U.S. Marines Corps, 1917-1956 by Millet
The Making of Strategy by Murray
Follow Me II: More on the Human Element in Leadership by Newman
Moving Mountains: Lessons in Leadership and Logistics from the Gulf War by Pagonis
How the War was Won by Travers
Take That Hill: Royal Marines in the Falklands War by Vaux
The Enlightened Soldier: Scharnhorst and the Militarische Gesellschaft in Berlin, 1801-1805 by White
100 Days: The Memoirs of the Falklands by Woodard

Col
The Supreme Commander: The War Years of General Dwight D. Eishenhower by Ambrose
Foundation of Moral Obligation: The Stockdale Course by Brennan
The Campaigns of Napoleon by Chandler
Military Misfortunes: The Anatomy of Failure in War by Cohen
General of the Army: George C. Marshall, Soldier and Statesman by Cray
Seeds of Disaster: The Development of French Army Doctrine, 1919-1939 by Doughty
Logistics in the National Defense by Eccles
War Secerts in the Ether: The Use of Signals Intelligence by the German Military in WWII by Flicke
The General by Forester
From Beirut to Jerusalem by Friedman
A Savage War of Peace: Algeria, 1954-1962 by Horne
To Lose a Battle: France, 1940 by Horne
The Rise and Fall of British Naval Mastery by Kennedy
Military Innovation in the Interwar Period by Millett & Murray
Luftwaffe by Murray
A Democracy at War: America's Fight at Home and Abroad in WWII by O'Neil
The 25-Year War: America's Military Role in Vietnam by Palmer
Nimitz by Potter
Korean War by Ridgeway
A Bridge Too Far by Ryan
The Marine Corps Search For a Mission 1880-1898 by Shulimson
Race to the Swift: Thoughts on Twenty First Century Warfare by Simpkin
Pershing, General of the Armies by Smythe
The Peloponnesian War by Thucydides
The Killing Ground: The Battle Army, The Western Front, & the Emergence of Modern Warfare by Travers
Our Great Spring Victory: An Account of the Liberation of South Vietnam by Van Tien Dung
Once a Marine: The Memoirs of General A. A. Vandergrift, USMC by Vandergrift
Eisenhower's Lieutenants: The Campaign of France and Germany, 1944-1945 by Weigly

BGen, MajGen, LtGen, Gen
Lejeune: A Marine's Life, 1867-1942 by Bartlett
Generalship, Its Diseases and Their Cure: A Study of the Personal Factor in Command by Fuller
The Best and the Brightest by Halberstam
On the Origins of War and the Preservation of Peace by Kagan
The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers: Economic Change and Military Conflict from 1500-2000 by Kennedy
Diplomacy by Kissenger
GIAP: The Victor in Vietnam by MacDonald
In Retrospect: The Tragedy and Lessons of Vietnam by McNamara
A Woman at War: Storming Kuwait with the U.S. Marines by Moore
Airwar in the Persian Gulf by Murray
FOLLOW ME III: Lessons on the Art and Science of High Command by Newman
My American Journey by Powell
Memoirs of General W. T. Sherman by Royster
Maverick Marine: General Smedley Butler and the Contradictions of American Military History by Schmidt
A Bright Shining Lie: John Paul Vann and America in Vietnam by Sheehan
The Nightingale's Song by Timberg
No Bended Knee by Twining

wrbones
07-06-02, 10:21 AM
Tun Tavern and the U.S. Marine Corps
On the 10th of November in 1775, the Continental Congress passed a resolution which said in part:
"...Resolved, that two battalions of Marines be raised, consisting of one colonel, two lieutenant colonels, two majors, and other officers as usual in other regiments; and that they consist of an equal number of privates with other battalions; that particular care be taken, that no persons be appointed to office, or enlisted into said battalions, but such as are good seamen, or so acquainted with maritime affairs as to be able to serve to advantage by sea when required; that they be enlisted and commissioned to serve for and during the present war between Great Britain and the Colonies, unless dismissed by order of Congress; that they be distinguished by the names of the first and second battalions of American Marines..."

With that resolution the Continental Marines were officially born. November 10th is still celebrated today as the Marine Corps Birthday.

On November 28th, 1775, Samuel Nicholas was commissioned a captain in the Continental Marines, and was charged with raising a part of the body of Marines which Congress had specified. Captain Nicholas remained the senior Marine officer throughout the Revolution and so is traditionally considered to be the first Commandant. Another officer that was appointed was Robert Mullan who happened to be the proprietor of Tun Tavern in Philadelphia. Supposedly, his appointment came as a result of his success as a recruiter and the importance of Tun Tavern as a recruiting station. It is also thought that the resolution passed by the Continental Congress that established the Marines, was written in Tun Tavern because the second floor of the tavern was the meeting place of the Naval Committee of Congress. Therefore, Tun Tavern and the birth of the Marines are forever intertwined together.

wrbones
07-06-02, 10:22 AM
Marine Corps Mission


The Marine Corps, within the Department of the Navy, shall be so organized as to include not less than three combat divisions and three air wings, and such other land combat, aviation and other services as may be organic therein.

The Marines Corps shall be organized, trained, and equipped to provide fleet marine forces of combined arms, together with supporting air components, for service with the fleet in the seizure or defense of advanced naval bases and for the conduct of such land operations as may be essential to the prosecution of a naval campaign.

In addition, the Marine Corps shall provide detachments and organizations for service on armed vessels of the Navy, shall provide security detachments for the protection of naval property at naval stations and bases, and shall perform such other duties as the President may direct. However, these additional duties may not detract from or interfere with the operations for which the Marine Corps is primarily organized.

The Marine Corps shall develop, in coordination with the Army and the Air Force, those phases of amphibious operations that pertain to the tactics, techniques, and equipment used by landing forces.

The Marine Corps is responsible, in accordance with integrated joint mobilization plans, for the expansion of peacetime components of the Marine Corps to meet the needs of war.

wrbones
07-06-02, 10:24 AM
Marine Corps and other Military Quotes


Some people live an entire lifetime and wonder if they have ever made a difference in the world, but the Marines don't have that problem.

Ronald Reagan, President of the United States of America

I have just returned from visiting the Marines at the front, and there is not a finer fighting organization in the world!

General Douglas MacArthur, US Army

The object of war is not to die for your country but to make the other bastard die for his.

General George Patton, US Army

The battle of Iwo Jima has been won. Among the Americans who served on Iwo, uncommon valor was a common virtue.

Fleet Admiral Chester W. Nimitz, USN

The man who will go where his colors will go, without asking, who will fight a phantom foe in a jungle and mountain range, without counting, and who will suffer and die in the midst of incredible hardship, without complaint, is still what he has always been, from Imperial Rome to sceptered Britain to Democratic America. He is the stuff of which legions are made. His pride is his colors and his regiment, his training hard and thorough and coldly realistic, to fit him for what he must face, and his obedience is to his orders. As a legionary, he held the gates of civilization for the classical world...he has been called United States Marine.

Lieutenant Colonel T.R. Fehrenbach, US Army in "This Kind of War"

Marines are about the most peculiar breed of human beings I have ever witnessed. They treat their service as if it was some kind of cult, plastering their emblem on almost everything they own, making themselves up to look like insane fanatics with haircuts to ungentlemanly lengths, worshipping their Commandant almost as if he was a god, and making weird animal noises like a band of savages. They'll fight like rabid dogs at the drop of a hat just for the sake of a little action, and are the cockiest SOB's I have ever known. Most have the foulest mouths and drink well beyond man's normal limits, but their high spirits and sense of brotherhood set them apart and , generally speaking, of the United States Marines I've come in contact with, are the most professional soldiers and the finest men I have had the pleasure to meet.

An Anonymous Canadian Citizen

Old breed? New breed? There's not a damn bit of difference so long as it's the Marine breed.

Lieutenant General Lewis B. "Chesty" Puller, USMC

People sleep peaceably in their beds at night only because rough men stand ready to do violence on their behalf.

George Orwell

The deadliest weapon in the world is a Marine and his rifle!

General Pershing, US Army

The more Marines I have around the better I like it!

General Mark Clark, US Army

You don't hurt 'em if you don't hit 'em.

Lieutenant General Lewis B. "Chesty" Puller, USMC

Being ready is not what matters. What matters is winning after you get there.

Lieutenant General Victor H. Krulak, USMC

I still need Marines who can shoot and salute. But I need Marines who can fix jet engines and man sophisticated radar sets, as well.

General Robert E. Cushman, Jr., USMC

The morale of soldiers comes from three things: a feeling that they have an important job to do, a feeling that they are trained to do it well, and a feeling that their good work is appreciated and recognized.

Unknown

Come on you bastards, do you want to live forever?

Gunnery Sergeant Dan Daly, USMC

To ERR is human, to FORGIVE divine. HOWEVER, neither is Marine Corps Policy.

Unknown

The Marines have landed, and the situation is well in hand.

Richard Harding Davis, war correspondent (1885)

This will be the bloodiest fight in Marine Corps history. We'll catch seven kinds of hell on the beaches, and that will be just the beginning. The fighting will be fierce, and the casualties will be awful, but my Marines will take the damned island. (concerning the upcoming attack on Iwo Jima)

Lieutenant General Holland M. "Howlin' Mad" Smith, USMC

Victory was never in doubt. Its cost was...What was in doubt, in all our minds, was whether there would be any of us left to dedicate our cemetery at the end, or whether the last Marine would die knocking out the last Japanese gun and gunner. (In reference to the Battle of Iwo Jima)

Major General Graves B. Erskine, USMC

The raising of that flag means a Marine Corps for the next five hundred years. (concerning the flag raising at Mt. Suribachi)

James Forrestal, Secretary of the Navy

A ship without Marines is like a garment without buttons.

Admiral David Porter, USN

Casualties many; Percentage of dead not known; Combat efficiency: we are winning!

Colonel David M. Shoup, USMC

I can never again see a United States Marine without experiencing a feeling of reverence.

General Johnson, US Army

We're not retreating, Hell! We're just attacking in different direction!

General Oliver Smith, USMC

We have two companies of Marines running all over this island and thousands of Army troops doing nothing!

General John Vessey, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff

Retreat hell! We just got here!

Captain Lloyd Williams, USMC

The safest place in Korea was right behind a platoon of Marines. LORD, how they could fight!

Major General Frank Lowe, US Army

Panic sweeps my men when they are facing the American Marines.

A captured North Korean Major

wrbones
07-06-02, 10:25 AM
Marine Corps Slogans


Semper Fidelis
This is the OFFICIAL Marine Corps motto. It means, "Always Faithful". Marines have proven this motto to be true by the fact that there has never been a mutiny among U.S. Marines. It is also the motto of England's Devonshire Regiment. Prior to its adoption by the USMC around 1883, there were three other TRADITIONAL mottos.

Fortitudine
this was the first TRADITIONAL motto and it began usage around 1812. It means, "With Fortitude".

By Sea and by Land
this was the second TRADITIONAL motto. It is a direct translation of the Royal Marines motto, "Per Mare, Per Terram".

To the Shores of Tripoli
the third TRADITIONAL motto was used until 1848 to commemorate Lieutenant Presley O'Bannon's capture of Derne in 1805. In 1848, after the capture of Mexico City, this motto was changed to, "From the halls of Montezuma to the Shores of Tripoli".

Every Marine a Rifleman
In other words, every Marine, regardless of specialty, is fundamentally the same. All are forged from a common experience, share a common set of values, and are trained as a cohesive air-ground team from the moment they join the Corps.

First of Foot, and Right of the Line
On 9 August 1876, the Secretary of the Navy honored the Marine Corps by giving them the place of honor, at the head of column, or right of line in a naval formation.

Tell it to the Marines
In 1644, Charles II, King of England was told a story about "Fish that fly like birds" by a returning ship's master. The king replied, "I have my doubts!" Sir William Killigren, colonel of the new British Marine regiment that was just raised that year said, "Nay, Sire, it is true. I have myself seen flying fish many a time in southern waters. I vouch for the truth of this strange tale, your Majesty." The monarch then told his Secretary of Admiralty, "Mr. Pepys, no class of our subjects hath such knowledge of odd things on land and sea as our Marines. Hereafter, when we hear a yarn that lacketh likelihood, we will tell it to the Marines. If they believe it, then we shall know it is true."

Retreat Hell! We just got here.
On May 28th, 1918, 2nd Battalion, 5th Marines of the 4th Marine Brigade were sent to help in the Belleau Wood sector. As they were approaching they were met by the French Commander of the troops that were already there who advised Marine Colonel Wendell C. Neville that the discreet thing to do was retreat. Neville's reply was a characteristic "Retreat Hell! We just got here!" They stayed and drove the numerically superior Germans out of Belleau Wood and other strong holds. It was here that the ferocious fighting that the Marines displayed caused the Germans to start referring to the Marines as "Teufelhunden", which means, "Devil Dogs".

First to Fight
This slogan started appearing on recruiting posters in World War I. Marines have been at the forefront of EVERY American war since their inception. On this historical record of readiness, this slogan constitutes the Marines' pride, responsibility and challenge.

Once a Marine, Always a Marine!
Once a person successfully completes their basic training, they have earned the title of United States Marine forever. Even after discharge or retirement they are still a Marine - still a part of the Band of Brothers.

wrbones
07-06-02, 10:27 AM
Band of Brothers


1. All Marines are entitled to dignity and respect as individuals, but must abide by common standards established by proper authority.

2. A Marine should never lie, cheat, or steal from a fellow Marine or fail to come to his aid in time of need.

3. All Marines should contribute 100% of their abilities to the unit’s mission. Any less effort by an individual passes the buck to someone else.

4. A unit, regardless of size, is a disciplined family structure, with similar relationships based on mutual respect among members.

5. It is essential that issues and problems which tend to lessen a unit’s effectiveness be addressed and resolved.

6. A blending of separate cultures, varying educational levels, and different social backgrounds is possible in an unselfish atmosphere of common goals, aspirations, and mutual understanding.

7. Being the best requires common effort, hard work, and teamwork. Nothing worthwhile comes easy.

8. Every Marine deserves job satisfaction, equal consideration and recognition of his accomplishments.

9. Knowing your fellow Marine well enables you to learn to look at things, through his eyes, as well as your own.

10. Issues detracting from the efficiency and sense of well being of an individual should be surfaced and weighed against the impact on the unit as a whole.

11. It must be recognized that a brotherhood concept depends on all members belonging-- being fully accepted by others within.

wrbones
07-06-02, 10:28 AM
Nicknames for U.S. Marines


Leatherneck
This name originates from the stiff leather stock that early Marines wore around their necks, probably to protect their jugular vein against saber blows

Devil Dog
The Germans after the battle at Belleau Wood in World War I called the Marines "Teufelhunden", which translates as Devil Dog, because of the fierce fighting that the Marines demonstrated

Jarhead
This was a slang term used by sailors in World War II because Marines in their Dress Blues with the stiff collar resembled Mason Jars

The President's Own
Used in reference to the Marine Band located in Washington, D.C., because they play at all the official White House ceremonies; it could easily refer to all Marines because the U.S. Marine Corps Mission states in part that the Marines "shall perform such other duties as the President may direct"

Gyrene
formed from the combination of G.I. and Marine

America's (The World's) 911 Force
The Marine Corps has earned this nickname by being the first forces called in a crisis. During the Cold War, Marines were called upon to protect our nation's interests on an average of once every 15 weeks. Since 1990, Marines have responded once every 5 weeks, an increase in taskings by a factor of three.

Faresta
"Sea Angels" - this name was given to Marines by the Bangladeshi flood victims in 1991

wrbones
07-06-02, 10:30 AM
Veterans


Some veterans bear visible signs of their service: a missing limb, a jagged scar, a certain look in the eye.

Others may carry the evidence inside them: a pin holding a bone together, a piece of shrapnel in the leg - or perhaps another sort of inner steel: the soul's alloy forged in the refinery of adversity.

Except in parades, however, the men and women who have kept America safe wear no badge or emblem.

You can't tell a vet just by looking.

What is a Vet?

He is the cop on the beat who spent six months in Saudi Arabia sweating two gallons a day making sure the armored personnel carriers didn't run out of fuel.

He is the barroom loudmouth, dumber than five wooden planks, whose overgrown frat-boy behavior is outweighed a hundred times in the cosmic scales by four hours of exquisite bravery near the 38th parallel.

She - or - he is the nurse who fought against futility and went to sleep sobbing every night for two solid years in Da Nang.

He is the POW who went away one person and came back another - or didn't come back AT ALL.

He is the Quantico drill instructor who has never seen combat - but has saved countless lives by turning slouchy, no-account rednecks and gang members into Marines, and teaching them to watch each other's backs.

He is the carrier pilot landing on a rolling, pitching, heaving flight deck during a rain squall in the pitch-black night of the Tonkin Gulf.

He is the parade-riding Legionnaire who pins on his ribbons and medals with a prosthetic hand.

He is the career quartermaster (Army Supply Corps) who watches the ribbons and medals pass him by.

He is the Army Ranger who humps endless miles of burning sand for three days with no sleep or food and very little water to designate targets for laser guided bombs or swims through a disease infested swamp and crawls over poisonous snakes under the cover of darkness to conduct intelligence on a foreign government hostile to our own and our cherished way of life.

He is the three anonymous heroes in The Tomb Of The Unknowns, whose presence at the Arlington National Cemetery must forever preserve the memory of all the anonymous heroes whose valor dies unrecognized with them on the battlefield or in the ocean's unless deep.

He is the old guy bagging groceries at the supermarket - palsied now and aggravatingly slow - who helped liberate a Nazi death camp and who wishes all day long that his wife were still alive to hold him when the nightmares come.

He is an ordinary and yet an extraordinary human being - a person who offered some of his life's most vital years in the service of his country, and who sacrificed his ambitions so others would not have to sacrifice theirs.

He is a soldier and a savior and a sword against the darkness, and he is nothing more than the finest, greatest testimony on behalf of the finest, greatest nation ever known.

So remember, each time you see someone who has served our country, just lean over and say Thank You. That's all most people need, and in most cases it will mean more than any medals they could have been awarded or were awarded.

Two little words that mean a lot, "THANK YOU".

See top 25 Marine Corps sites, USMC Homepage,

wrbones
07-06-02, 10:40 AM
A little history. Text of Revolutionary War recruiting poster.










GREAT ENCOURAGEMENT
AMERICAN REVOLUTION
What a Brilliant Prospect does this Event Present to every Lad of Spirit who is inclined to try his Fortune in this highly renowned Corps.
The Continental Marines
When every thing that swims the Seas must be a
PRIZE!
Thousands are at this moment endeavoring to get on Board Privateers where they will serve without pay or reward of any kind whatsoever, so certain does their chance appear of enriching themselves by PRIZE MONEY! What an enviable Station then must the CONTINENTAL MARINE hold,--- who with far superior advantages to these, has the additional benefit of liberal Pay, and plenty of the best Provisions, with a good and well appointed Ship under him, the Pride and Glory of the Continental Navy; surely every Man of Spirit must blush to remain at Home in Inactivity and Indolence when his Country needs his Assistance.

Where then can he have such a fair opportunity, reaping Glory and Riches in the Continental Marines, a Corps daily acquiring new Honors, and here, once embarked in American Fleet, he finds himself in the midst of Honor and Glory, surrounded by a set of fine fellows, Strangers to Fear, and who strike Terror through the Hearts of their Enemies wherever they go!

He has likewise the inspiring idea to know, that while he sails the Ocean to protect the Liberty of these states, that the Thanks and good Wishes of the whole American people shall send him forth on his mission and participate in his Glory. Lose no Time, then, my Fine Fellows, in embracing the glorious Opportunity that awaits you: YOU WILL RECEIVE
Seventeen Dollars Bounty.
And on your Arrival at Head Quarters be comfortably and genteely CLOTHED. And spirited young BOYS, of a promissing Appearance, who are Five Feet Six Inches High, will receive TEN DOLLARS, and equal Advantage of PROVISIONS and CLOTHING with the Men. And those who wish only to enlist for a limited Service, shall receive a Bounty of SEVEN DOLLARS, and Boys FIVE. In fact, the Advantages which the MARINE receives are too numerous to mention here, but among the many, it may not be amiss to state --- that if he has a WIFE or aged PARENT, he can make them an Allotment of half his PAY which will be regularly paid without any Trouble to them, or to whomever he may direct, that being well Fed and Clothed on Board Ship, the remainder of his PAY and PRIZE MONEY will be placed in Reserve for the Relief of his Family or his own private Purposes. The Single Young Man, on his Return to Port, finds himself compelled to cut a Dash on Shore, with his GIRL and his GLASS, that might be envied by a Nobleman. Take Courage then, seize the Fortune that awaits you, repair to the MARINE RENDEVOUS, where on a FLOWING BOWL of PUNCH, on Three Times Three, you shall drink.
Long Live the United States and Success to the Marines
The Daily Allowance of a Marine when embarked is One Pound of BEEF or PORK. One Pound of BREAD. Flour, Raisins, Butter, Cheese, Oatmeal, Molasses, Tea, Sugar, &c. &c. And a Pint of the best WINE, or half a Pint of the Best RUM or BRANDY, together with a Pint of LEMONADE. They make Liberty in warm countries, a plentiful Allowance of the choicest FRUIT. And what can be more handsome than the Marines' Proportion of PRIZE MONEY, when a Sergeant shares equal with the Fleet Class of Petty Officers, such as Midshipmen, Petty Officers, &c. which is five shares each; a Corporal with the Second Class, which Is Three Shares each; and the Private with the Able Seaman, one Share and a Half each.

Desiring Greater Particulars, and a more full account of the many Advantages of this Invaluable Corps, apply to CAPTAIN MULLAN at TUN TAVERN, where the bringer of a Recruit will receive THREE DOLLARS.

January, 1776


See scuttle butt and small chow

wrbones
07-06-02, 10:46 AM
Melville's look at Marines aboard ship. 1840's







U.S. frigate United States




Excerpts from
White Jacket, or Life Aboard a Man-of-War
In my reading, recently, I came across the following descriptions of Marines aboard a man-of-war in the 1840s. The writer is Herman Melville, and the passage is from his novel White Jacket; or The World in a Man-of-War. The novel, which is filled with accurate & closely-observed particulars, grew from his experiences aboard the US frigate United States, on which he shipped as an ordinary seaman in 1843. While fiction, White Jacket is, in fact, probably the single most comprehensive and accurate portrait we have of the daily life aboard a U.S. Navy frigate in the mid-19th-century. This accuracy applies not only to the details of ship and shipboard life, but to the individual sailors and Marines themselves. Rear Admiral S.R. Franklin, author of Memories of a Rear-Admiral Who Has Served for More Than Half a Century in the Navy of the United States, and who himself served aboard the United States on a Pacific cruise in 1842, vouched for the veracity of Melville's portraits, writing: "He (Melville) gives no names, but to any one who served in the Frigate United States it was easy to recognise the men by their sobriquets."

Although a novel, White Jacket was sufficiently respected as a piece of accurate reportage in its own day that advocates for the prohibition of flogging in the U.S. Navy placed a copy of the book on the desks of every member of Congress, among whom Melville's graphic descriptions of flogging proved so influential that they proceeded to restrict the practice in 1853 and then to prohibit it entirely in 1862.

The Marines' Mess

"And now, to do myself justice, I must add that, the next day, I was received with open arms by a glorious set of fellows~ Mess No. 1!~ numbering, among the rest, my noble Captain Jack Chase (a highly respected individual and Captain of the Maintop). This mess was principally composed of the headmost men of the gun-deck; and, out of a pardonable self-conceit, they called themselves the "Forty-two-pounder Club;" meaning that they were, one and all, fellows of large intellectual and coporeal calibre. Their mess-cloth was well located. On their starboard hand was Mess No. 2, embracing sundry rare jokers and high livers, who waxed gay and epicurean over their salt fare, and were known as the "Society for the Destruction of Beef and Pork." On the larboard hand was Mess No. 31, made up entirely of fore-top-men, a dashing, blaze-away set of men-of-war's-men, who called themselves the "Cape Horn Snorters and Neversink Invincibles." Opposite, was one of the marine messes, mustering the aristocracy of the marine corps~the two corporals, the drummer and fifer, and some six or eight rather gentlemanly privates, native-born Americans, who had served in the Seminole campaigns of Florida; and they now enlivened their salt fare with stories of wild ambushes in the Everglades; and one of them related a surprising tale of his hand-to-hand encounter with Osceola, the Indian chief, whom he fought one morning from daybreak till breakfast time. This slashing private also boasted that he could take a chip from between your teeth at twenty paces; he offered to bet any amount on it; and as he could get no one to hold the chip, his boast remained for ever good."


Corporal Colbrook Promenades at his Leisure

"Still another mode of passing time (while anchored in harbor), was arraying yourself in your best togs and promenading up and down the gundeck, admiring the shore scenery from the port-holes, which, in an amphitheatrical bay like Rio ~ belted about by the most varied and charming scenery of hill, dale, moss, meadow, court, castle, tower, grove, vine, vineyard, aqueduct, palace, square, island, fort ~ is very much like lounging round a circular cosmorama, and ever and anon lazily peeping through the glasses here and there. Oh! there is something worth living for, even in our man-of-war world; and one glimpse of a bower of grapes, though a cable's length off, is almost satisfaction for dining off a shank-bone salted down.

This promenading was chiefly patronised by the marines, and particularly by Colbrook, a remarkably handsome and very gentlemanly corporal among them. He was a complete lady's man; with fine black eyes, bright red cheeks, glossy jet whiskers, and a refined organisation of the whole man. He used to array himself in his regimentals, and saunter about like an officer of the Coldstream Guards, strolling down to his club in St. Jame's. Every time he passed me, he would heave a sentimental sigh, and hum to himself The girl I left behind me. This fine corporal afterward became a representative in the Legislature of the State of New Jersey; for I saw his name returned about a year after my return home.

But, after all, there was not much room, while in port, for promenading, at least on the gun-deck, for the whole larboard side is kept clear for the benefit of the officers, who appreciate the advantages of having a clear stroll fore and aft; and they well know that the sailors had much better be crowded together on the other side than that the set of their own coat-tails should be impaired by brushing against their tarry trowsers."


Corporal Colbrook's Gallant & Timely Intercession

Later in the tale, the narrator, "White Jacket", encounters this same Marine again, albeit under greatly changed circumstances. White Jacket has been arraigned at the mast under the grave charge of being absent at his station during a tacking of the ship. The fault, in fact, lies with the First Lieutenant, who has failed to inform him of his station but, in attempting to defend himself, White Jacket has managed to offend the ship's Captain who is now on the verge of ordering him flogged. Rather than submit to this degrading ordeal, White Jacket is actually about to lunge at the Captain and pitch the both of them overboard. It is at this critical juncture that the Marine makes his reappearance:

"'Captain Claret,' said a voice advancing from the crowd. I turned to see who this might be, that audaciously interposed at a juncture like this. It was the same remarkably handsome and gentlemanly corporal of marines , Colbrook, who has been previously alluded to, in the chapter describing killing time in a man-of-war.

'I know that man,' said Colbrook, touching his cap, and speaking in a mild, firm, but extremely deferential manner; 'and I know that he would not be found absent from his station, if he knew where it was.'

This speech was almost unprecedented. Seldom or never before had a marine dared to speak to the Captain of a frigate in behalf of a seaman at the mast. But there was something so unostentatiously commanding in the calm manner of the man, that the Captain, though astounded, did not in any way reprimand him. The very unusualness of his interference seemed Colbrook's protection.

Taking heart, perhaps, from Colbrook's example, Jack Chase (the highly respected Captain of the Maintop) interposed, and in a manly but carefully respectful manner, in substance repeated the corporal's remark, adding that he never found me wanting in the top.

The Captain looked from Chase to Colbrook, and from Colbrook to Chase ~ one the formost man among the seamen, the other the foremost man among the soldiers ~ then all round upon the packed and silent crew, and, as if a slave to Fate, though supreme Captain of a frigate, he turned to the First Lieutenant, made some indifferent remark, and saying to me you may go, sauntered aft into his cabin; while I, who, in the desperation of my soul, had just escaped being a murderer and a suicide, almost burst into tears of thanksgiving where I stood."

wrbones
07-06-02, 10:50 AM
~ General Instructions to Marine Guard ~
~ July 1st, 1878 (on board the USS Alliance) ~









General Instructions


Implicit obedience to all orders is strictly enjoined.

Non.com. officers must be treated with respect and their orders obeyed.

Should any member of the Guard feel himself possessed of any just cause of complaint, he will apply to the 1st Sergeant for permission to state his case to his superior officer ~ On the other hand, grumbling, insolence or insubordinate conduct in any shape, will meet with instant and severe punishment.

While it is enjoined upon the guard to be civil to the crew, skylarking, or intimacy of any kind with the sailors cannot be tolerated, as such conduct is prejudicial to the good order and discipline of the ship ~

It is the duty of any member of the guard when they see men fighting to immediately separate them, and assist the Master-at-arms and Non.Com. Officers of the guard in bringing them to the Mast.

No article of clothing will be altered or destroyed except by permission of the Comdg. Officer of the Guard.

Loaning, trading, selling, or exchanging articles of clothing is strictly prohibited unless by permission of the Comdg. Marine Officer.

Frequent inspections will be had of the Guards clothing, and the men will be held to account for all articles issued to them.

Members of the Guard wishing to see the Comdg. Off. of the guard, will notify the 1st Sergeant before morning inspection.

All request for liberty must pass through the 1st Sergt., and all liberty or visiting men must report their return to him immediately after their return on board ~

Any member of the guard desiring to see the Doctor must notify the 1st Sergt. By 8 am ~

All members of the guard are enjoined to yield on all occasions a willing, cheerful and prompt obedience to those placed over them; to avoid difficulties with each other or quarreling with sailors; to be always neat and tidy, and to contribute all in their power to promote harmony & order ~

At all assembly's of the guard every dutiable man must be on deck before the guard is formed ~

The arms will not be taken apart unless by permission of the Comdg. Marine Officer ~

Lost arms or accoutrements will be charged against the accounts of looser if caused by his neglect ~

All clothing will be marked with the owners name in full ~

Every member of the guard on reaching the quarter-deck either from a boat or below, or on leaving it to go over the side, will salute the deck ~

wrbones
07-06-02, 11:15 AM
another recruiting poster

wrbones
07-06-02, 11:18 AM
Some Marine Art

wrbones
07-06-02, 11:40 AM
Article I: I am an American, fighting in the armed forces which guard my country and our way of life. I am prepared to give my life in their defense.
Article II: I will never surrender of my own free will. If in command, I will never surrender my people while they still have the means to resist.

Article III: If I am captured, I will continue to resist by all means available. I will make every effort to escape and aid others to escape. I will accept neither parole nor special favors from the enemy.

Article IV: If I become a prisoner of war, I will keep my faith with my fellow prisoners. I will give no information or take part in any action which might be harmful to my comrades. If I am senior, I will take command. If not, I will obey the lawful orders of those appointed over me and will back them up in every way.

Article V: When questioned, should I become a prisoner of war, I am required to give only name, rank, service number, and date of birth. I will evade answering further questions to the utmost of my ability. I will make no oral or written statements disloyal to my country and it's allies or harmful to their cause.

Article VI: I will never forget that I am an American, fighting for freedom, responsible for my action, and dedicated to the principles which make my country free. I will trust in my God and the United States of America.

wrbones
07-06-02, 11:44 AM
MY RIFLE

The Creed of a United States Marine
by
Major General W.H. Rupertus,USMC

This is my rifle. There are many like it, but this one is mine.

My rifle is my best friend. It is my life. I must master it as I must master my life.

My rifle, without me is useless. Without my rifle, I am useless. I must fire my rifle true. I must shoot him before he shoots me. I will...

My rifle and myself know that what counts in this war is not the rounds we fire, the noise of our burst, nor the smoke we make. We know that it is the hits that count. We will hit...

My rifle is human, even as I, because it is my life. Thus I will learn it as a brother. I will learn its weaknesses, its strengths, its parts, its accessories, its sights, and its barrel. I will ever guard it against the ravages of weather and damage. I will keep my rifle clean and ready, even as I am clean and ready. We will be part of each other. We will...

Before God I swear this creed. My rifle and myself are the defenders of my country. We are the masters of our enemy. We are the saviorsof my life.

So be it, until victory is America's and there is no enemy, but Peace!

wrbones
07-06-02, 11:57 AM
What'd we say?





Able target---The round bulls eye target
Aboard---on base
Alice pack---field pack worn by Marines.(all purpose,lightweight,individual,carrying,equipment)
All hands---everybody
As you were---resume activity
Aye,aye---Acknowledgement of an order.
BFA--- Blank Firing Apratas blocks the gas from the blank and uses it to cycle the bolt on the weapon.Without it the weapon would fire once and not cycle a new round into the chamber.
Blouse---jacket of the uniform.
Blues---Dress blue formal uniform.
Boondocks---Swamps,small towns,middle of nowhere(also called boonies)
Boot---Recruit,or new Marine.
Brass---officers.
Brig---jail,or prison.
Bulkhead---Wall
Bunk---Bed(also called "rack".)
Buttcan---Ashtray
Camies---camouflage uniform.
Carry on---same as "as you were".
CG---commanding General.
Cheese dick--- a Marine who whines,or (also see "no load,"****bird",or "taliban")
Chit---a small piece of paper,or recruit money.
Chow---Food
Chow down---to eat
Click--one notch of a rifle sight,or one kilometer.
CMC---Commandant of the Marine Corps.
Colors---American flag,also the ceremonies of raising the flag and lowering the flag.
Corpsman---Navy medic who serves with Marines, also called "doc".
Cover---Marine corps hat.
Deck---floor.
Deuce gear---782 gear,equipment carried by Marines.
D.I---Drill Instructor.
Ditty bag---a caring bag for misc.items,also called a war bag.
Dog and pony show---special drill,or something else if you happen to visit Korea!!
Double time---running.
Fart sack---a fixed sheet that goes on your rack.
Field day---cleanning the barracks.
Float---sea deployment.
FMF---Fleet Marine Force.
FTS---**** the suck,what Marines say when they are mad at the Corps.
Galley---kitchen
Gear---FT.
Grinder---parade deck.
Grunt---Marine Infantryman.
Gung ho---highly motivated(Chinese for pulling together).
Hatch---door.
Head---toilet,or ****ter.
High-and-Tight---standard marine haircut
Hooch--- a 2 man tent
Hump---march,or hike.
MCT---Marine Combat Training.
IG---Inspector General.
Jarhead---a Marine
Leatherneck---Another name for a Marine.
Leave---vacation.
Liberty---Authorized absence up to 96 hours.
M16A2---basic Marine weapon.
M60---belt fed automatic weapon.
Maggies drawers---means you missed the target at the rifle range!!
No load---a Marine that doesn't carry his weight,or a ****up(also see ****bird)
PFT---Physical fitness test
Pogey bait--- candy.
PX---post exchange,a store on base.
Quarters---living space.
Rack---bed(also see "bunk")
Rappel---to descend by rope.
Recon---reconnaissance.
Round---bullet,or shell.
Scuttlebutt---gossip,rumors,almost always bull****!!
Seabag---large canvas bag for hauling you gear.
Secure---to stop,lock up or put away.
Semper Fi--- short for Semper Fidelis,Latin for always faithful,the Marine Corps motto.
****bird---a Marine that does'nt care or is sloppy.(also see "no load")
Sick bay---medical center.
Skivvies---underwear.
Smoking lamp---if it is lit you can smoke,if it is out you cant smoke.
Snap in---Practice firing on the range.
SOP---standard operating procedure.
Sound off---shouting very loud!!
Squad bay---Large room where many marines live.
Squared away---neat,good Marine.
Squid--Navy person(also see "swabbie")
SRB---service record book
Swab--Mop
Swabbie---Navy person.(also see "squid")
T-day---B day.
Taliban--- Islamic extremist *******s,talk big but in fact are pussies!!(see also "cheese dick","no load",or look up coward on the Internet.)
Topside---upstairs.
UA---unauthorized absence.
Unk---unqualified on the rifle range.
Unsat---unsatisfactory.
War belt---cartridge belt used to carry equipment.
The word---confirmed info.

wrbones
07-06-02, 12:00 PM
Marine Corps General Orders for Sentries

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------



General Order 1

To take charge of this post and all government property in view.


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General Order 2

To walk my post in a military manner, keeping always on the alert and observing everything that takes place within sight or hearing.


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General Order 3

To report all violations of orders I am instructed to enforce.


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General Order 4

To repeat all calls from posts more distant from the guardhouse than my own. General Order 5 To quit my post only when properly relieved.


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General Order 6

To receive, obey and pass on to the sentry who relieves me all orders from the commanding officer, officer of the day, and officers and noncommissioned officers of the guard only.


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General Order 7

To talk to no one except in the line of duty.


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


General Order 8

To give the alarm in case of fire or disorder.


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General Order 9

To call the corporal of the guard in any case not covered by instructions.


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General Order 10

To salute all officers and all colors and standards not cased.


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General Order 11

To be especially watchful at night, and during the time for challenging, to challenge all persons on or near my post and to allow no one to pass without proper authority.


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wrbones
07-06-02, 12:02 PM
The Marine Prayer


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Almighty Father, whose command is over all and whose love never fails, make me aware of Thy presence and obedient to Thy will. Keep me true to my best self, guarding me against dishonesty in purpose and deed and helping me to live so that I can face my fellow Marines, my loved ones, and Thee without shame or fear. Protect my family.

Give me the will to do the work of a Marine and to accept my share of responsibilities with vigor and enthusiasm. Grant me the courage to be proficient in my daily performance. Keep me loyal and faithful to my superiors and to the duties my Country and the Marine Corps have entrusted to me. Help me to wear my uniform with dignity, and let it remind me daily of the traditions which I must uphold.

If I am inclined to doubt, steady my faith; if I am tempted, make me strong to resist; if I should miss the mark, give me courage to try again. Guide me with the light of truth and grant me wisdom by which I may understand the answer to my prayer


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

wrbones
07-06-02, 12:04 PM
Parris Isalnd rifle range, WWI

wrbones
07-06-02, 12:07 PM
Recruiting duty, WWI

wrbones
07-06-02, 12:09 PM
Marine Corps art .WWI Marine

wrbones
07-06-02, 12:10 PM
WWI Marine Corps helmet

wrbones
07-06-02, 05:35 PM
For those who haven't seen these in awhile.

wrbones
07-06-02, 05:36 PM
Here's another one I like.

wrbones
07-06-02, 10:11 PM
Core values

wrbones
07-06-02, 10:14 PM
Marines train.

wrbones
07-07-02, 10:53 AM
Following the war with the Barbary Pirates in 1805, when Lieutenant Presely N. O'Bannon and his small force of Marines participated in the capture of Derne and hoisted the American flag for the first time over a fortress of the Old World, the Colors of the Corps was inscribed with the words: "To the Shores of Tripoli." After the Marines participated in the capture and occupation of Mexico City and the Castle of Chapultepec, otherwise known as the "Halls of Montezuma," the words on the Colors were changed to read: "From the Shores of Tripoli to the Halls of Montezuma." Following the close of the Mexican War came the first verse of the Marines' Hymn, written, according to tradition, by a Marine on duty in Mexico. For the sake of euphony, the unknown author transposed the phrases in the motto on the Colors so that the first two lines of the Hymn would read: "From the Halls of Montezuma, to the Shores of Tripoli."

A serious attempt to trace the tune of the Marines' Hymn to its source is revealed in correspondence between Colonel A.S. McLemore, USMC, and Walter F. Smith, second leader of the Marine Band. Colonel McLemore wrote: "Major Richard Wallach, USMC, says that in 1878, when he was in Paris, France, the aria to which the Marines' Hymn is now sung was a very popular one." The name of the opera and a part of the chorus was secured from Major Wallach and forwarded to Mr. Smith, who replied: "Major Wallach is to be congratulated upon a wonderfully accurate musical memory, for the aria of the Marine Hymn is certainly to be found in the opera, 'Genevieve de Brabant'. . .The melody is not in the exact form of the Marine Hymn, but is undoubtedly the aria from which it was taken. I am informed, however, by one of the members of the band, who has a Spanish wife, that the aria was one familiar to her childhood and it may, therefore, be a Spanish folk song."

In a letter to Major Harold F. Wirgman, USMC, dated 21 October 1936, John Philip Sousa says: "The melody of the 'Halls of Montezuma' is taken from Offenbach's comic opera, 'Genveieve de Brabant' and is sung by two gendarmes." Most people believe that the aria of the Marines' Hymn was, in fact, taken from "Genevieve de Brabant," an opera-bouffe (a farcical form of opera, generally termed musical comedy) composed by Jacques Offenbach, and presented at the Theatre de Bouffes Parisians, Paris, on 19 November 1859.

Offenbach was born in Cologne, Germany, 21 June 1819 and died 5 October 1880. He studied music from an early age and in 1838 entered the Paris Conservatoire as a student. In 1834, he was admitted as a violoncellist to the "Opera Comique" and soon attained much popularity with Parisian audiences. He became conductor of the Theatre Francais in 1847 and subsequently leased the Theatre Comte, which he reopened as the Bouffes-Parisians. Most of his operas are classified as comic (light and fanciful) and include numerous popular productions, many of which still hold a high place in European and American countries.

Every campaign the Marines have taken part in gives birth to an unofficial verse. For example, the following from Iceland:

"Again in nineteen forty-one
We sailed a north'ard course
And found beneath the midnight sun,
The Viking and the Norse.
The Iceland girls were slim and fair,
And fair the Iceland scenes,
And the Army found in landing there,
The United States Marines."

Copyright ownership of the Marines' Hymn was vested in the United States Marine Corps per certificate of registration dated 19 August 1891, but it is now in the public domain. In 1929, the Commandant of the Marine Corps authorized the following verses of the Marines' Hymn as the official version:

"From the Halls of Montezuma
to the Shores of Tripoli,
We fight our country's battles
On the land as on the sea.
First to fight for right and freedom,
And to keep our honor clean,
We are proud to claim the title
of United States Marine.

"Our flag's unfurl'd to every breeze
From dawn to setting sun;
We have fought in every clime and place
Where we could take a gun.
In the snow of far-off northern lands
And in sunny tropic scenes,
You will find us always on the job
The United States Marines.

"Here's health to you and to our Corps
Which we are proud to serve;
In many a strife we've fought for life
And never lost our nerve.
If the Army and the Navy
Ever look on Heaven's scenes,
They will find the streets are guarded
By United States Marines."

On 21 November 1942, the Commandant of the Marine Corps approved a change in the words of the fourth line, first verse, to read, "In air, on land, and sea." Ex-Gunnery Sergeant H.L. Tallman, veteran observer in Marine Corps Aviation who participated in many combat missions with Marine Corps Aviation over the Western Front in World War I, first proposed the change at a meeting of the First Marine Aviation Force Veterans Association in Cincinnati, Ohio.

Many interesting stories have been associated with the Marines' Hymn. One of the best was published in the Stars and Stripes, the official newspaper of the American Expeditionary Force, under date of 16 August 1918.

"A wounded officer from among the gallant French lancers had just been carried into a Yankee field hospital to have his dressing changed. He was full of compliments and curiosity about the dashing contingent that fought at his regiment's left.

"A lot of them are mounted troops by this time, he explained, for when our men would be shot from their horses, these youngsters would give one running jump and gallop ahead as cavalry. I believe they are soldiers from Montezuma. At least, when they advanced this morning, they were all singing "From the Halls of Montezuma to the Shores of Tripoli."

The Marines' Hymn has been sung and played wherever U.S. Marines have landed, and today is recognized as one of the foremost military service songs.

wrbones
07-07-02, 10:58 AM
On November 10, 1775, the Continental Congress meeting in Philadelphia passed a resolution stating that "two Battalions of Marines be raised" for service as landing forces with the fleet. This resolution, established the Continental Marines and marked the birth date of the United States Marine Corps. Serving on land and at sea, these first Marines distinguished themselves in a number of important operations, including their first amphibious raid into the Bahamas in March 1776, under the command of Captain (later Major) Samuel Nicholas. Nicholas, the first commissioned officer in the Continental Marines, remained the senior Marine officer throughout the American Revolution and is considered to be the first Marine Commandant. The Treaty of Paris in April 1783 brought an end to the Revolutionary War and as the last of the Navy's ships were sold, the Continental Navy and Marines went out of existence.

Following the Revolutionary War and the formal re-establishment of the Marine Corps on 11 July 1798, Marines saw action in the quasi-war with France, landed in Santo Domingo, and took part in many operations against the Barbary pirates along the "Shores of Tripoli". Marines participated in numerous naval operations during the War of 1812, as well as participating in the defense of Washington at Bladensburg, Maryland, and fought alongside Andrew Jackson in the defeat of the British at New Orleans. The decades following the War of 1812 saw the Marines protecting American interests around the world, in the Caribbean, at the Falkland Islands, Sumatra and off the coast of West Africa, and also close to home in the operations against the Seminole Indians in Florida.

During the Mexican War (1846-1848), Marines seized enemy seaports on both the Gulf and Pacific coasts. A battalion of Marines joined General Scott's army at Pueblo and fought all the way to the "Halls of Montezuma," Mexico City. Marines also served ashore and afloat in the Civil War (1861-1865). Although most service was with the Navy, a battalion fought at Bull Run and other units saw action with the blockading squadrons and at Cape Hatteras, New Orleans, Charleston, and Fort Fisher. The last third of the 19th century saw Marines making numerous landings throughout the world, especially in the Orient and in the Caribbean area.

Following the Spanish-American War (1898), in which Marines performed with valor in Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines, the Corps entered an era of expansion and professional development. It saw active service in the Philippine Insurrection (1899-1902), the Boxer Rebellion in China (1900). and in numerous other nations, including Nicaragua, Panama, Cuba, Mexico, and Haiti.

In World War I the Marine Corps distinguished itself on the battlefields of France as the 4th Marine Brigade earned the title of "Devil Dogs" for heroic action during 1918 at Belleau Wood, Soissons, St. Michiel, Blanc Mont, and in the final Meuse-Argonne offensive. Marine aviation, which dates from 1912, also played a part in the war effort, as Marine pilots flew day bomber missions over France and Belgium. More than 30,000 Marines had served in France and more than a third were killed or wounded in six months of intense fighting.

During the two decades before World War II, the Marine Corps began to develop in earnest the doctrine, equipment, and organization needed for amphibious warfare. The success of this effort was proven first on Guadalcanal, then on Bougainville, Tarawa, New Britain, Kwajalein, Eniwetok, Saipan, Guam, Tinian, Peleliu, Iwo Jima, and Okinawa. By the end of the war in 1945, the Marine Corps had grown to include six divisions, five air wings, and supporting troops. Its strength in World War II peaked at 485,113. The war cost the Marines nearly 87,000 dead and wounded and 82 Marines had earned the Medal of Honor.

While Marine units took part in the post-war occupation of Japan and North China, studies were undertaken at Quantico, Virginia, which concentrated on attaining a "vertical envelopment" capability for the Corps through the use of helicopters. Landing at Inchon, Korea in September 1950, Marines proved that the doctrine of amphibious assault was still viable and necessary. After the recapture of Seoul, the Marines advanced to the Chosin Reservoir only to see the Chinese Communists enter the war. After years of offensives, counter-offensives, seemingly endless trench warfare, and occupation duty, the last Marine ground troops were withdrawn in March 1955. More than 25,000 Marines were killed or wounded during the Korean War.

In July 1958, a brigade-size force landed in Lebanon to restore order. During the Cuban Missile Crisis in October 1962, a large amphibious force was marshaled but not landed. In April 1965, a brigade of Marines landed in the Dominican Republic to protect Americans and evacuate those who wished to leave.

The landing of the 9th Marine Expeditionary Brigade at Da Nang in 1965 marked the beginning of large-scale Marine involvement in Vietnam. By summer 1968, after the enemy's Tet Offensive, Marine Corps strength in Vietnam rose to a peak of approximately 85,000. The Marine withdrawal began in 1969 as the South Vietnamese began to assume a larger role in the fighting; the last ground forces were out of Vietnam by June 1971. The Vietnam War, longest in the history of the Marine Corps, exacted a high cost as well with over 13,000 Marines killed and more than 88,000 wounded. In the spring of 1975, Marines evacuated embassy staffs, American citizens, and refugees in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, and Saigon, Republic of Vietnam. Later, in May 1975, Marines played an integral role in the rescue of the crew of the SS Mayaguez captured off the coast of Cambodia.

The mid-1970s saw the Marine Corps assume an increasingly significant role in defending NATO's northern flank as amphibious units of the 2d Marine Division participated in exercises throughout northern Europe. The Marine Corps also played a key role in the development of the Rapid Deployment Force, a multi-service organization created to insure a flexible, timely military response around the world when needed. The Maritime Prepositioning Ships (MPS) concept was developed to enhance this capability by prestaging equipment needed for combat in the vicinity of the designated area of operations, and reduce response time as Marines travel by air to link up with MPS assets.

The 1980s brought an increasing number of terrorist attacks on U.S. embassies around the world. Marine Security Guards, under the direction of the State Department, continued to serve with distinction in the face of this challenge. In August 1982, Marine units landed at Beirut, Lebanon, as part of the multi-national peace-keeping force. For the next 19 months these units faced the hazards of their mission with courage and professionalism. In October 1983, Marines took part in the highly successful, short-notice intervention in Grenada. As the decade of the 1980s came to a close, Marines were summoned to respond to instability in Central America. Operation Just Cause was launched in Panama in December 1989 to protect American lives and restore the democratic process in that nation.

Less than a year later, in August 1990, the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait set in motion events that would lead to the largest movement of Marine Corps forces since World War II. Between August 1990 and January 1991, some 24 infantry battalions, 40 squadrons, and more than 92,000 Marines deployed to the Persian Gulf as part of Operation Desert Shield. Operation Desert Storm was launched 16 January 1991, the day the air campaign began. The main attack came overland beginning 24 February when the 1st and 2d Marine Divisions breached the Iraqi defense lines and stormed into occupied Kuwait. By the morning of February 28, 100 hours after the ground war began, almost the entire Iraqi Army in the Kuwaiti theater of operations had been encircled with 4,000 tanks destroyed and 42 divisions destroyed or rendered ineffective.

Overshadowed by the events in the Persian Gulf during 1990-91, were a number of other significant Marine deployments demonstrating the Corps' flexible and rapid response. Included among these were non-combatant evacuation operations in Liberia and Somalia and humanitarian lifesaving operations in Bangladesh, the Philippines, and northern Iraq. In December 1992, Marines landed in Somalia marking the beginning of a two-year humanitarian relief operation in that famine-stricken and strife-torn nation. In another part of the world, Marine Corps aircraft supported Operation Deny Flight in the no-fly zone over Bosnia-Herzegovina. During April 1994, Marines once again demonstrated their ability to protect American citizens in remote parts of the world when a Marine task force evacuated U.S. citizens from Rwanda in response to civil unrest in that country. Closer to home, Marines went ashore in September 1994 in Haiti as part of the U.S. force participating in the restoration of democracy in that country. During this same period Marines were actively engaged in providing assistance to the Nation's counter-drug effort, assisting in battling wild fires in the western United States, and aiding in flood and hurricane relief operations.

wrbones
07-07-02, 11:00 AM
Battle Color of the Marine Corps

Marine Barracks, Washington, D.C., holds the official Battle Colors of the Marine Corps. A duplicate is maintained in the office of the Commandant of the Marine Corps in the Pentagon. The Battle Colors bear the same fifty streamers authorized for the Marine Corps as a whole. These streamers represent U.S. and foreign unit awards as well as those periods of service, expeditions, and campaigns in which the Marine Corps has participated from the American Revolution to today.

During the Marine Corps' first 150 years, Marines in the field carried a variety of flags. It was not until 18 April 1925 that Marine Corps Order Number 4 designated gold and scarlet as the official colors of the U.S. Marine Corps. These colors, however, were not reflected in the official Marine Corps flag until 18 January 1939 when a new design incorporating the new colors was approved. This design was essentially that of today's Marine Corps standard, and was the result of a two-year study concerning the design of a standard Marine Corps flag, and the units to which such a flag should be issued.

The fifty colored streamers which adorn the Battle Colors represent the history and accomplishments of the Marine Corps. The newest streamer to be added to the Battle Colors is the Kosovo Campaign Streamer, awarded for service in various Kosovo operations beginning in 1999.

wrbones
07-07-02, 11:02 AM
Current Award, Campaige, Service, and Expeditionary Streamer Entitlement, to the Battle Colors of the Marine Corps

1. Presidential Unit Citation (Navy) Streamer with six silver and two bronze stars

2. Presidential Unit Citation (Army) Streamer with one silver oak leaf cluster

3. Joint Meritorious Unit Award

4. Navy Unit Commendation Streamer

5. Valorous Unit Award (Army) Streamer

6. Meritorious Unit Commendation (Navy-Marine Corps) Streamer

7. Meritorious Unit Commendation (Army) Streamer

8. Revolutionary War Streamer

9. Quasi-War with France Streamer

10. Barbary Wars Streamer

11. War of 1812 Streamer

12. African Slave Trade Streamer

13. Operations Against West Indian Pirates Streamer

14. Indian Wars Streamer

15. Mexican War Streamer

16. Civil War Streamer

17. Marine Corps Expeditionary Streamer with twelve silver stars, three bronze stars and one silver "W"

18. Spanish Campaign Streamer

19. Philippine Campaign Streamer

20. China Relief Expedition Streamer

21. Cuban Pacification Streamer

22. Nicaraguan Campaign Streamer

23. Mexican Service Streamer

24. Haitian Campaign Streamer with one bronze star

25. Dominican Campaign Streamer

26. World War I Victory Streamer with one silver and one bronze star, one Maltese Cross, and Siberia and West Indies Clasps

27. Army of Occupation of Germany Streamer

28. Second Nicaraguan Campaign Streamer

29. Yangtze Service Streamer

30. China Service Streamer with one bronze star

31. American Defense Service Streamer with one bronze star

32. American Campaign Streamer

33. European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign Streamer with one silver and four bronze stars

34. Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Streamer with eight silver and two bronze stars

35. World War II Victory Streamer

36. Navy Occupation Service Streamer with Europe and Asia Clasps

37. National Defense Service Streamer with two bronze stars

38. Korean Service Streamer with two silver stars

39. Armed Forces Expeditionary Streamer with five silver and one bronze star

40. Vietnam Service Streamer with three silver and two bronze stars

41. Southwest Asia Service Streamer with three bronze stars

42. Kosovo Campaign Streamer with two bronze stars

43. Philippine Defense Streamer with one bronze star

44. Philippine Liberation Streamer with two bronze stars

45. Philippine Independence Streamer

46. French Croix De Guerre Streamer with two palms and one gilt star

47. Philippine Presidential Unit Citation Streamer with two bronze stars

48. Korean Presidential Unit Citation Streamer

49. Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces Meritorious Unit Citation of the Gallantry Cross with Palm

50. Republic of Vietnam Meritorious Unit Citation Civil Actions Streamer with Palm

wrbones
07-07-02, 11:04 AM
History of the Marine Corps Flag

Very little information is available regarding the flags carried by early American Marines, although indications are that the Grand Union flag was carried ashore by the battalion led by Captain Samuel Nicholas on New Providence Island, 3 March 1776. It is quite possible that the Rattlesnake flag was also carried on this expedition.

The standard carried by the Marines during the 1830s and 1840s consisted of a white field with gold fringe, and bore an elaborate design of an anchor and eagle in the center. Prior to the Mexican War, this flag bore the legend "To the Shores of Tripoli" across the top. Shortly after the war, the legend was revised to read: "From Tripoli to the Halls of the Montezumas."

During the Mexican and Civil Wars, Marines in the field apparently carried a flag similar to the national flag, comprised of red and white stripes and a union. The union, however, contained an eagle perched on a shield of the United States and a half-wreath beneath the shield, with 29 stars encircling the entire design. Beginning in 1876, Marines carried the national colors (the Stars and Stripes) with "U.S. Marine Corps" embroidered in yellow on the middle red stripe.

At the time of the Vera Cruz landing in 1914, a more distinctive standard was carried by Marines. The design consisted of a blue field with a laurel wreath encircling the Marine Corps emblem in the center. A scarlet ribbon above the emblem carried the words "U.S. Marine Corps," while another scarlet ribbon below the emblem carried the motto "Semper Fidelis."

Orders were issued on 2 April 1921 which directed all national colors be manufactured without the yellow fringe and without the words "U.S. Marine Corps" embroidered on the red stripe. This was followed by an order dated 14 March 1922, retiring from use all national colors still in use with yellow fringe or wording on the flag. Following World War I, the Army practice of attaching silver bands carrying inscriptions enumerating specific decorations and battles was adopted. This practice was discontinued on 23 January 1961.

Marine Corps Order No. 4 of 18 April 1925 designated gold and scarlet as the official colors of the U.S. Marine Corps. These colors, however, were not reflected in the official Marine Corps standard until 18 January 1939, when a new design incorporating the new colors was approved. The design was essentially that of today's Marine Corps standard.

For a brief time following World War I, the inscribing of battle honors directly on the colors of a unit was in practice, but realization that a multiplicity of honors and the limited space on the colors made the system impractical, and the procedure was discontinued. On 29 July 1936, a Marine Corps Board recommended that the Army system of attaching streamers to the staff of the organizational colors be adopted. Such a system was finally authorized by Marine Corps Order No. 157, dated 3 November 1939, and is currently in practice.

wrbones
07-07-02, 11:06 AM
Military Salutes

A unique aspect of military courtesy is the salute. It is a gesture of respect and sign of comradeship among military service personnel. Accordingly, the salute is a uniform gesture; meaning that the highest man in rank returns the salute in the same form in which it is rendered to him. By saluting first, no officer implies that he is in any sense inferior to the senior whom he salutes.

The origins of saluting, like so many military customs and traditions, is shrouded in the past, but there are several possibilities concerning its beginnings. In the medieval days of chivalry, mounted knights in mail raised their visors to friends for the purpose of identification. Because of strict adherence to rank, the junior was required to make the first gesture.

Another possibility concerning the origins of saluting comes from an age when assassinations by dagger were not uncommon. It became the custom in such times for potential adversaries to approach each other with raised hand, palm to the front, showing that there was no concealed weapon.

It seems reasonable to assume, however, that the hand salute as now rendered in the military, evolved to some degree from the British navy. There is general agreement among scholars that the hand salute is actually the first part of "uncovering" in front of a senior. That practice gradually evolved over time into merely touching the cap, and became the present salute.

There are several types of military salutes - the hand salute, the rifle salute at order arms, a rifle salute at right shoulder, and still another rifle salute at present arms. "Eyes Right" is another type of military salute which is rendered by troops in rank when passing in review.

A unique type of salute is the respect that is rendered over a grave by a military honor guard. Originally, three rifle volleys were fired into the air over the grave of a fallen soldier. This custom may well have originated in a perceived need to scare away evil spirits "escaping" from the dead. As in ancient times, it was believed that the hearts of the recently deceased were ajar at such times, allowing the devil to enter! Today, the homage and respect displayed at military funerals is a visible final tribute to those individuals who have served their country.

The various forms of military hand and gun salutes are administered by an individual or group as a sign of respect. Originating in customs, traditions, and even superstitions from our distant past, the salute has evolved from ancient times to become an important part of military etiquette.

wrbones
07-07-02, 11:29 AM
We have our own language.



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Joint Publication 3-02
Joint Doctrine for Amphibious
Operations



Background:

Purpose. To provide an overview on the recently signed joint publication 3-02, Joint Doctrine for Amphibious Operations, dated 19 September 2001.

Key Points

The command authority options available to the establishing authority for an amphibious or MPF operation are as listed in the JP 0-2, Unified Action Armed Forces (UNAAF) as relationships of support, tactical control (TACON), and operational control (OPCON). Normally, a support relationship will be established between Navy and Marine forces.

CATF and CLF are no longer titles, but are descriptive doctrinal terms. The terms do not imply a command relationship and are used in doctrine solely to clarify the duties and responsibilities of these commanders.


Amphibious Force (AF): An Amphibious Task Force and a Landing Force together with supporting forces that are trained, organized, and equipped for amphibious operations.


Amphibious Task Force (ATF): A Navy task organization formed to conduct amphibious operations. Together with a Landing Force and supporting forces comprise the Amphibious Force.


Landing Force (LF): A Marine Corps or Army task organization formed to conduct amphibious operations. Together with the ATF and supporting forces comprise the Amphibious Force.


The MAGTF/Landing Force commander is the supported commander when he is responsible for the preponderance of the amphibious/MPF mission. The conditions for the shift of supported and supporting relationships between the Navy and Landing Force commanders are recommended by these two commanders to the establishing authority for approval. Normally, this shift is an event driven circumstance. The establishing authority resolves any differences between these two commanders.


Initiating an Amphibious Operation. An order issued by the commander with establishing authority to the amphibious force commanders. The order initiating the amphibious operation may come in the form of a warning order, an alert order, a planning order, or an operation order (OPORD). If a support relationship is established among designated commanders of the AF, an establishing directive may be used to specify the purpose of the support, the desired effect, and the scope of action to be taken. The establishing directive is used in addition to the order initiating the amphibious operation.


The amphibious planning process consists of the same steps as used in the six step Marine Corps planning process.


PERMA now replaces the traditional A for assault with A for action. The amphibious operation may be something other than an assault (e.g., NEO, or Humanitarian assistance).


Types of amphibious operations include assaults, withdrawals, demonstrations, raids, and other operations in a permissive, uncertain, or hostile environment.


The operational areas that may be assigned to an amphibious force are an amphibious objective area (AOA) or an area of operation (AO). Normally, a high density airspace control zone (HIDACZ) is used in conjunction with an AO. The HIDACZ has defined dimensions that usually coincide with geographical features or navigational aids. Access to a HIDACZ is normally controlled by the maneuver commander.


JP 3-02 was signed 19 September 2001. Refer to the information paper for a summary of significant changes in amphibious doctrine as a result of the new JP publication below.




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wrbones
07-07-02, 11:34 AM
We have our own mechanics

wrbones
07-07-02, 11:36 AM
We have college educated enlisted personnel

wrbones
07-07-02, 11:39 AM
NCO's get to carry swords!

wrbones
07-07-02, 11:43 AM
We train, making sure the parachute will open!

wrbones
07-07-02, 11:45 AM
We train some more, ensuring that we WILL hit the target

wrbones
07-07-02, 11:47 AM
We have our own aiforce...and junior enlisted men have hands on responsiblity for the safety and operation of every peice of it.

wrbones
07-07-02, 11:49 AM
And we always remember....

wrbones
07-07-02, 12:13 PM
www.marines.com Ya gotta go take a look.

wrbones
07-07-02, 12:25 PM
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wrbones
07-07-02, 12:26 PM
Their logo

wrbones
07-07-02, 12:28 PM
USMC

wrbones
07-07-02, 12:30 PM
Just because I'm a Winger

wrbones
07-07-02, 12:32 PM
CH-53E's incoming.

wrbones
07-07-02, 12:34 PM
one....

wrbones
07-07-02, 12:36 PM
or two for the fixed wing side of the house.

wrbones
07-07-02, 01:46 PM
We never forget.


Background Information on the Disabled American Veterans

Treaties are signed and the battles of nations end, but the personal battles of those disabled in war only begin when the guns fall silent. These men and women must struggle to regain health, reshape lives shattered by disability, learn new trades or professions, and rejoin the civilian world. At each step, they need help to help themselves. For three quarters of a century now, that aid has come from the Disabled American Veterans (DAV), a nonprofit organization of more than one million veterans disabled during time of war or armed conflict.

Formed in 1920 and chartered by Congress in 1932, the million-member DAV is the official voice of America's service-connected disabled veterans -- a strong, insistent voice that represents all of America's 2.1 million disabled veterans, their families and survivors. Its nationwide network of services -- free of charge to all veterans and members of their families -- is totally supported by membership dues and contributions from the American public. Not a government agency, the DAV's national organization receives no government funds.



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wrbones
07-07-02, 02:20 PM
Military / Patriotic.
The American Creed
"I believe in the United States of America as a Government of the people by the people, for the people, whose just powers are derived from the consent of the governed; a democracy in a Republic; a sovereign Nation of many sovereign States; a perfect Union, one and inseparable; established upon those principls of freedom, equality, justice, and humanity for which American patriots sacrificed their lives and fortunes.

I therefore believe it is my duty to my Country to love it; to support its Constitution; to obey its laws; to respect its flag, and to defend it againest all enemies."

by William Tyler Page


Historical Notes: The American's Creed was a result of a nationwide contest for writing a National Creed, which would be a brief summary of the American political faith founded upon things fundamental in American history and tradition. The contest was the idea of Henry Sterling Chapin, Commissioner of Education of New York State. Over three thousand entries were received, and William Tyler Page was declared to be the winner. James H. Preston, the mayor of Baltimore, presented an award to Page in the House of Representatives Office Building on April 3, 1918. The Speaker of the House of Representatives and the commissioner of education of the state of New York accepted the Creed for the United States, and the proceedings relating to the award were printed in the Congressional Record of April 13, 1918. It was a time when patriotic sentiments were very much in vogue. The United States had been a participant in World War I only a little over a year at the time the Creed was adopted.

The author of the American's Creed, William Tyler Page, was a descendant of John Page, who had come to America in1650 and had settled in Williamsburg, Virginia. Another ancestor, Carter Braxton , had signed the Declaration of Independence.
Still another ancestor, John Tyler, was the tenth president of the United States. William Tyler Page had come to Washington at the age of thirteen to serve as a Capitol Page. Later he became an employee of the Capitol building and served in that capacity for almost sixty-one years. In 1919 he was elected clerk of the House. Thirteen years later, when the Democrats again became a majority party, they created for Page the office of minority clerk of the House of Representatives. He held this position for the remainder of his life.

Referring to the Creed, Page said: "It is the summary of the fundamental principles of the American political faith as set forth in its greatest documents, its worthiest traditions, and its greatest leaders." His wording of the Creed used passages and phrases from the Declaration of Independence, the Preamble to the Constitution, Lincoln's Gettysburg Address, and Daniel Webster's reply to Robert Y. Hayne in the Senate in 1830.

wrbones
07-07-02, 02:30 PM
more Marine art...

wrbones
07-07-02, 02:32 PM
from tthe same artist

wrbones
07-07-02, 02:33 PM
again.

wrbones
07-07-02, 03:39 PM
( slightly re-arranged)



Murphy's Laws Of Combat Operations -Friendly fire - isn't.

Recoilless rifles - aren't.

Suppressive fires - won't.

You are not Superman; Marines and fighter pilots take note.

A sucking chest wound is Nature's way of telling you to slow down.

If it's stupid but it works, it isn't stupid.

Try to look unimportant; the enemy may be low on ammo and not want to waste a bullet on you.

If at first you don't succeed, call in an airstrike.

If you are forward of your position, your artillery will fall short.

Never share a foxhole with anyone braver than yourself.

Never go to bed with anyone crazier than yourself.

Never forget that your weapon was made by the lowest bidder.

If your attack is going really well, it's an ambush.

The enemy diversion you're ignoring is their main attack.

The enemy invariably attacks on two occasions: when they're ready. & when you're not.

No PLAN ever survives initial contact.

There is no such thing as a perfect plan.

Five second fuzes always burn three seconds.

There is no such thing as an atheist in a foxhole.

A retreating enemy is probably just falling back and regrouping.

The important things are always simple; the simple are always hard.

The easy way is always mined.

Teamwork is essential; it gives the enemy other people to shoot at.

Don't look conspicuous; it draws fire. For this reason, it is not at all uncommon for aircraft carriers to be known as bomb magnets.

Never draw fire; it irritates everyone around you.

If you are short of everything but the enemy, you are in the combat zone.

When you have secured the area, make sure the enemy knows it too.

Incoming fire has the right of way.

No combat ready unit has ever passed inspection.

No inspection ready unit has ever passed combat.

If the enemy is within range, so are you.

The only thing more accurate than incoming enemy fire is incoming friendly fire.

Things which must be shipped together as a set, aren't.

Things that must work together, can't be carried to the field that way.

Radios will fail as soon as you need fire support.

Radar tends to fail at night and in bad weather, and especially during both.

Anything you do can get you killed, including nothing.

Make it too tough for the enemy to get in, and you won't be able to get out.

Tracers work both ways.

If you take more than your fair share of objectives, you will get more than your fair share of objectives to take.

When both sides are convinced they're about to lose, they're both right.

Professional soldiers are predictable; the world is full of dangerous amateurs.

Military Intelligence is a contradiction.

Fortify your front; you'll get your rear shot up.

Weather ain't neutral.

If you can't remember, the Claymore is pointed towards you.

Air defense motto: shoot 'em down; sort 'em out on the ground.

'Flies high, it dies; low and slow, it'll go.

Napalm is an area support weapon.

Mines are equal opportunity weapons.

B-52s are the ultimate close support weapon.

Sniper's motto: reach out and touch someone.

Killing for peace is like screwing for virginity.

The one item you need is always in short supply.

Interchangeable parts aren't.

It's not the one with your name on it; it's the one addressed "to whom it may concern" you've got to think about.

When in doubt, empty your magazine.

The side with the simplest uniforms wins.

Combat will occur on the ground between two adjoining maps.

If you can keep your head while those around you are losing theirs, you may have misjudged the situation.


Anything you do can get you shot, including nothing.

Whenever you lose contact with the enemy, look behind you.

The most dangerous thing in the combat zone is an officer with a map.

The quartermaster has only two sizes, too large and too small.

If you really need an officer in a hurry, take a nap.

There is nothing more satisfying than having someone take a shot at you, and miss.

If your sergeant can see you, so can the enemy.

You'll only remember your hand grenades when the sound is too close to use them.

Close only counts in horseshoes and hand grenades.

Well .. It could be worse: It could be raining .. and we could be out in it.

So he said, "Cheer up: it could be worse!" So we cheered up. And it got worse.


The spare batteries for the PRC-whatever your troops have been carrying are either nearly dead or for the wrong radio.

The ping you heard was the antenna snapping off at 6 inches above the flexmount, while a fire mission was being called in on a battalion of hostiles who know your position.

Why is it the CO sticks his head in your radio hooch to see if anything has come down from DIV when you are listening to the VOA broadcasting the baseball games?

How come you are on one frequency when everyone else is on another?

Why does your 500-watt VRC-26 (real old) not make it across 200 miles while a ham with 50 watts on the same MARS frequency can be heard from Stateside?

Know why short RTOs have long whips on their radios? So someone can find them when they step in deep water.

The enemy "Alway's" times his attack, to the second you drop your pant's in the Latrine!!

The ammo you need "NOW"!! is on the "Next" airdrop!!









There is no such thing as a cloudy sky when your unit needs to infiltrate enemy territory.

Road conditions are always red when it's time to convoy home.

Motor pools are always 20 degrees warmer than the rest of the AO during the summer and 50 degrees colder in the winter.

Training areas exist in a constant state of weather flux controlled by a deity with a truly cruel sense of humor--How do you think we got them so cheap?

The peak of Mt. Everest would flood if an unit was told to set up on it.

The likelihood of a hurricane, sandstorm, tsunami, or blizzard occurring immediately over your location is directly related to how bad you need to get to the head at the other side of the firebase in the middle of the night.

The temperature always rises to 70 degrees AFTER you put on two layers of polypros, and all of your Gortex.




There is no limit to how bad things can get.




Rules of a Gunfight


Avoid them like the plague


Have a plan or two. (If not, a "Last Will & Testament will do.)
Corollary: No plan survives contact with the enemy.

Bring at least one gun (don't bring a knife).

Bring the biggest gun you can handle.

Bring friends (as friendly witnesses or fire support).*

Let close air support or artillery soften-up the target for you. ;-)

Make use of available cover.

Remember the difference between concealment and cover.

Don't get shot (Use cover to your advantage).

Place your shots well.

Pay attention to where your shots fall.

"Speed's fine, but accuracy is final."

Don't miss. (You can't miss fast enough to win.)

Rules of drawing

If you're the bad guy, draw & shoot first.

If you're the good guy, draw first and shoot first.

Never turn your back on an armed bad guy, even if he's down.

Rules of wounds

A "sucking chest wound" is nature's way of telling you to slow down.

If you're bleeding to death, say something witty.

If you're actually dying, say something deep.

Never assume your opponent is out of ammo.

Bring lots of ammo.

In combat, you will be scared. You will have a tendency to shoot high. Be aware of this and aim low.

Rules of quitting

Don't quit just because you're hit; GET EVEN!

Never quit, period.

There is no prize for second place.

There's no such thing as "unfair advantage."


It is better to give than receive (Just like Christmas).

Professionals are predictable, it's the amateurs that are dangerous.


If your opponents didn't have the courtesy to "Count Off!" before beginning, assume that there's one more somewhere.



Drop the one with the biggest weapon first.

wrbones
07-07-02, 08:08 PM
USMC Saws, Adages, Sayings and Other Truths

Save Water, Shower With A Marine

Grunts Can Do Anything

Marines Always Welcome, Relatives By Appointment

Good Night Chesty, Wherever You Are

Marine Sniper -- Visualize World Peace

Marine Sniper -- You Can Run But You Can't Hide

What Part of Marine Don't you Understand

We Don't Care How You Do It In The Navy

Be Safe Sleep With A Marine

To Boldly Go Where A FEW GOOD MEN Have Gone Before

Heros Get Remembered, Legends Live Forever

When It Absolutely, Positively Must Be DESTROYED Overnight -- Call The USMC

Heaven Won't Take Us and Hell Is Afraid We'll Take Over

There Are Two Types of People: MARINES and Those Who Wish They Were

It Ain't Braggng If YOU Can Do It

We Deliver More Destruction Overnight Than Those Who Deliver Overnight

Deadliest Weapon In The World -- A Marine And His Rifle

If You Weren't There Then Shut Up

Marines Never Die -- They Just Go To Hell And Re-Group

For Those Who Fought For It,
Freedom Has A Flavor The Protected Will Never Know

The Impossible Is Done With The Lord's Help And A Few Good Men

Nobody Ever Drowned In Sweat

Marine Pilots Are Plane People With A Special Air About Them

I Love The Smell Of Jet Fuel In The Morining -- Marine Aviation

USMC -- Improvise, Adapt, Overcome

USMC -- No Promises, No Shortcuts

USMC -- America's 911 Service

More Sweat In Peace, Less Blood In War

USMC Is Part Of The Navy -- The Men's Department

Do Draft Dodgers Have Reunions? If So What Do They Talk About?

To Err Is Human, To Forgive Is Divine
Neither of Which Is Marine Corps Policy

Marine Artillery -- The Grunts 24-7, 911 Rescue Battery

Women Marines -- Fewer and Prouder

Every Marine Is A Rifleman
One Shot, One Kill

Forget Smith and Wesson -- This Property Protected By A US Marine

When In Doubt Empty The Magazine

Force Recon -- Penetrates Deeper, Takes Longer
And Carries A Bigger Load

Pain Is Only Temporary, Pride Is Forever

Where In The Hell Is 29 Palms

USMC -- We Do Not Promise You A Rose Garden

Pain Is Weakness Leaving The Body

Combat Engineers -- When It Absolutely Must Be Destroyed Overnight

The Marine Corps Doesn't Build Character, It Reveals It

USMC Infrantry -- Taking Out The Garbage

Not as Lean, Not As Mean, But Still A Marine

And On The Seventh Day When GOD Rested,
We Overran His Perimeter And Stole The Globe,
We Stole The Eagle From The Air Force,
The Anchor From The Navy,
The Rope From The Army,
And Have Been Protecting Our Shores Ever Since.

Marine
"You earned the title "Marine" upon graduation from boot recruit training. It wasn't willed to you; it isn't a gift. It is not a government subsidy. Few can claim the title; no one can take it away. It is yours forever."
Tom Barlett - Leatherneck Magazine

"Some people spend an entire lifetime wonderng if they made a difference.
The MARINES don't have that problem."
President Ronald Reagan - 1985

"Marines are about the most peculiar breed of human beings I have ever known. They treat their service as if it was some kind of cult, plastering their emblem on almost everythng they own, making themselves up to look like insane fanatics...."
by an anonymous Canadian citizen

The US Air Force Chief-of-Staff would never be called -- Airman
The Chief-of-Naval Operations would never be called -- Sailor
The Commanding General of The US Army would never be called -- Soldier
BUT the Commandant of the Marine Corps would be proud to be called a -- Marine

United States Marine Corps
Leader of men, teller of tall tales, legend in his own mind, U.S. Marine extraordinaire, stream fordable, air dropable, beer fueled, water cooled, author, history maker, lecturer, traveler, freedom fighter, defender of the faith. Wars fought, tigers tamed, revolutions started, bars emptied, alligators castrated. Let me win your hearts and minds or I'll burn your damn hut down





Marines Pull Duty In Heaven, Who Else Would God Trust

Gun Control Is Hitting Your Target

You Can Take The Marine Out Of The Corps But You Can't Take The Corps Out Of The Marine

Mess With One MARINE You Mess With Them All

If Everyone Could Get In It Wouldn't Be The Marine Corps

When In Doubt Empty The Magazine

Marines or Martyrs-- Who Do You Think Will Get The Virgins

Marines Only Fear God, No Others

Unless You're Dead, You're Not A Former Marine

No Promises, No Short Cuts, No Retreat, No Surrender

Sergeants Run The Corps But Don't Tell The Commandant

wrbones
07-07-02, 08:20 PM
General Force Recon info
Raider Battalions of World War II
Setup of a Force Recon company
1st Force Reconnaissance company
2nd Force Recon Co.
3d Force Recon Co.
3d Force Recon Detachment
5th Force Recon Co.
Missing in Action FR Marines
List of missions types, some recent missions.
Force Recon Qualifications and Initial Training
Jump School
SCUBA school
Some FR equipment
Special schools, and sniping
Some help on additional FR information
Force Recon Assoc Info
Sign My Guestbook
View my guestbook

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"The Corps is currently moving forward with plans to disolve Force Recon. In fact, it's already been done at II MEF. They have consolidated Force with Div. and Reg. Recon companies to make one consolidated Recon Battalion. It falls under the Division not the MEF, although those in C Co, made up mostly of the former Force guys, do still work for the MEF and go on pumps as well as the other classified stuff they've always done. A conference of SRIG COs, MEF and MARFOR G-2s and G-3s is now underway in Quantico to look at doing this Corps-wide. The conference is also examining how to fix what is largely considered a broken SRIG. Possibilities being discussed include doing away with the SRIG altogether or reorganizing (or more likely just renaming it) as a kind of H&S Regiment."--A military journalist
This page is dedicated to "Mr. Pathfinder", Maj. Donald E Koelper, the first Marine to die in Vietnam.



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Force Recon is one of the two most elite units in the Marine Corps. These are the men who fight the secret wars that never make the front page.('I know guys at the Division Companies that been asked to go to Dev. Group (Team 6, which by the way just for your knowlege is not all Seals, just as Delta isn't all Army)"--A recon marine, now in college) To become a Force Recon marine, you must first have an infantry MOS.The MOS for Recon (battalion and force) in the MC is 0321. You are then tested on certain physical skills such as running, push-ups, etc. After that you are dive and jump qualified, as are the US Navy's SEALS or the Army's Green Berets. Force Recon companies are attached to MEU(SOC)S, which are supposedly special operations capable. They serve on MEU(SOC)S as the first in for operations, scout swimmers, and the unit's eyes behind the lines.First and foremost, though, they are the "shooters". In Vietnam, the Force Recon companies conducted operations very similar to that of the Navy SEALs, such as sniping, quick raids, enemy captures, etc. Today there are only two force recon companies. Their missions are seldom heard about, like the Army's Delta Force.There is also a Battalion strength of reconnaisance in the USMC.Here is an explanation of differences as stated by one FR marine:"I personally think the difference between Force and Bn is sanity level (Oh, wait I was Force, quick think of something else). . . I mean dedication. :) Seriously though, the difference seems to be mental more than physical. It takes an extremely focused person to willingly do what Force is asked to accomplish. We are often allowed to use huge amounts of discretion by our officers as long as the missin is accomplished. Bn doens't usually get that. I wouldn't call it micro management more of the officers feeling that they need to be kept appraised of the situation do to the different roles we have to fulfill, namely that as Bn Recon team is out in the bush gathering invaluable retail and serving as an invisible support team to its Bn. On the other hand Force goes into the bush to gather intel on key subjects and are given missions like the hypothetical following: Jump in to DLZ raven 0200 960402, arrive at point mongoose (thirty miles away) by 0700 960402. Radio checks at every hour on the quarter. Gather intel on quadrant d8h. Contact Iowa for support as needed. Arrive at extraction site 2400 960426. We opperate more as an strategic offensive form of support, whereas Bn is more of a tactical offensive form of support. Just this jarheads opinion as he sees it."Another view:"The differnce of FR and BN recon are basically the mission. We work for the MEU commander and Bn works for the Bn commanders. It goes a little more in depth than that though."
On June of 1957, the first Company of Force Reconnaisance was formed, with Maj Bruce F Myers as its proud CO.Further back in the history of Recon:"The history of recon in the marines goes WAYS back in time. This information is as best as i can remember, and a few dates may be off abit. Prior to WW II of the 180 amphib landings done by marines, only three had any recon activity before the landing. in jan 1942 two officers and twenty enlisted marines of the first marine div were formed at quantio, they were called 'observation group'. This was the FIRST unit in marine history to be organized and trained as an amphib recon unit. Capt James Logan Jones was the first commander. Jones so impressed his superiors that in jan 43 the group was inlarged to 6 officers and 92 enlisted and was given the title of Amphib Recon Co. Nov 8th 43 Capt Jones and 3 platoons boarded the sub nautilus in hawaii and departed for the island of Apamama, this may be the first actual amphib recon patrol conducted in WWII.Numerous other recon activities were conducted during the war. There was activity in marine recon after the war on a smaller scale and of different requirements. The came the Korean war. Capt Houghton had a recon company that did several recon missions as far as 40 miles into north korea. In korea, the marines worked hand in hand with the navy forgmen of the time. (seals were not yet formed) They used the sub "Perch" which i was on several times alittle latter. The First Amphib REcon Platoon was formed in Mar 51. On Oct 53 the platoon as increased to Company strength, (THIS IS WHERE I CAME IN) and Jan 54 to Battalion size." thank you, member of Amphib Recon company.His personal experience:"I joined the marines in early 1953 and after boot camp and individual combat training i wanted to go to korea and fight. I was sent to a 'staging regiment' when they discovered i was only 17 yrs old, could not go into combat till 18. The sgt in charge said he would put me on KP duty (8 months) till i turned 18 and THEN i would go to korea. well KP duty after a couple months was not too good. one day the company clerk , who knew i wanted a tansfer, asked if i was interesed in becoming a paratrooper. I said YES, took the physical, passed, but nothing happened very fast. A week or so later he asked if i wanted to be a "frogman", again i said YES. in about 3 days i was tranfered to the First Provisional Amphib Recon Group. I dont think i ever 'walked' again,every thing was done at 'double time'..lol It took a while to get the company up to full strength and then we went to Coronado Navy base (Navy frogman's school) to learn about using rubber rafts, being towed by PT boats (cheap thrill) and how to make hydrographic charts and surveys. We then took a practice landing class off San Clemente Island for a few days. Later we went to Kaneohe Hawaii where we trained for 6 months. It was very physical and demanding. We learned all about making recon missions from landing under darkness from a submarine. Lots of compass training, learning how to identify enemy equipment, troop strength, work alone (3-4 man groups) and beable to survive far behind enemy lines for long periods of time. Some survival training as well. There was a total of 12 men selected from the company to go to the pearl harbor sub station for 4 weeks of scuba training. I was one of the tweleve. During class a record was kept of our grades abailities etc, and an "Honor Man" graduating in the class would be named. At the finial day of the finial test, mayself and a ssgt mason were tied for the top spot.I scored higher on the test than he and my graduation certificate stated " Graduating as Honor Man of his class." SSGt Mason was so upset that HE did not get the award he told the navy that marines did NOT have a Honor Man in classes and made them take back the certificate and change it. (I still hate the bastard) After six months in hawaii our company was sent back to USA. However before leaving they asked for volunteers to stay and help train a new company that was coming, so i did.Well recon is a very close knit bunch of guys and the new company did not take too well to the guys who stayed to help train them, since of course they thought they knew it all already anyway. I never got along in that company and we only stayed for fours months instead of six. When we returned they asked for volunteers to go to FortBragg to army jump school. I wanted to go , but they would not let me saying i had been to scuba school and let somebody else go, I resigned from recon at that point. After I spent a few months in a supply company I was selected to go and become an Embassy Guard, which i did for two years overseas, dressed as a civilian. (A whole other story) Recon was getting quite a reputation and since the navy funded the marines, the navy saw a chance to get alot of publicity and formed the Navy Seals. Now the navy has no business doing in-land operations like we did, but they had the money and would not give us enough to become as large and as well equiped as the Seals have become. Now i dont want to take any thing away from the seals becausee they are a great bunch of serious fighters. I just think the MARINES do it BETTER....lol
"NO WHERE ELSE IN THE US DO OPERATORS PRACTICICE AMHIB RECONNAISSANCE FULL TIME EXCEPT IN THE MARINES ,ESPECIALLY IN DIVISION RECON"--SSgt L. "
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wrbones
07-07-02, 08:24 PM
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Raider Battalions

On January 6, 1942, 1st Bn , 5th Marines was redesignated as the 1st separate bn. It was moved to Amphib Force Atlflt, for the purpose of raids.The current commandant felt a need for a USMC unit like the British Royal Marine Commandos.The battalion was designated the 2d raider battalion in 19 feb 1942.3 days prior a 1st raider battalion had been formed.on 7 august 1942 the first Raider Bn landing was made in Tulagi. on Spetember 20 1942 the 3d raider bn was formed in Samoa.The 4th was formed on 23 october 1942. on 15 march 1943, the 1st raider regiment was formed. It contained the four raider battalions.In 1943, september 12, the 2d raider regiment was formed with 2d and 3d raider battalions.4th marines were formed in 26 jan 1944 from the raider battalions.There were also Balloon, glider , and parachute forces in the Marine Corps active in WWII, disproving somehting said in "Sgt Major, USMC" about Jacques being innthe first USMC combat jump.
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Force Recon companies are set up like this:

Force Recon Company (officers-12, enlisted-145)

Company HQ (officers 5 enlisted 26)
Supply Service platoon(officers 1 enlisted 35)
Six Recon platoons (officers 1 enlisted 14 each)

The company HQ consists of HG section, ops section, and communications section.The supply and services platoon consists of platoon HQ, supply section, mess section, parachute Maint. & repair,medical, motor transport,and amphbious equipment maint.Each recon platoon has a platoon HQ and 3 4-man recon teams.

Force Recon was begun as Amphibious Recon Battalions and companies in world war 2.


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The commanding officers of 1st Force Reconnaissance Company are as follows:
(From "Inside Force Recon", by Michael Lee Lanning)

Maj Bruce Meyers 19 jun 57-15 jan 59
Cap Herman Redfield III 16 jan 59-22 jun 59
Maj John Counselman 23 jan 59-24 jun 60
Maj Robert Hunt Jr 25 jun 60-10 apr 61
Maj James McAlister 11 apr 61-03 oct 62
Maj Tom gibson 04 oct 62-31 aug 63
Cap Patrick Ryan 01 sep 63-11 spe 63
Maj Robert Dickey III 12 dec 63-11 dec 64
Maj Herman McDonald Jr 12 dec 64-08 jul 65
Maj Malcolm Gaffen 09 jul 65-27 dec 65
Capt William Shaver 23 dec 65-14 mar 66
Maj Dwayne Colby 15 mar 66-04 sep 66
Maj Bill Lowery 5 sep 66-08 apr 67
Maj Michael Cerreta Jr. 09 apr 67-16 may 67
Cap Albert Dixon II 17 may 67-19 sep 67
Cap Daniel Keating 20 sep 67-14 dec 67
Maj Edwin Walker 15 dec 67-01 may 68
Maj James Sullivan 02 may 68-02 oct 68
Cap W.M. Lingenfelter 03 oct 68-05 oct 68
Maj Roger Simmons 06 oct 68-03 oct 69
Maj William Bond Jr 04 oct 69-04 jun 70
Major Dale Dorman 05 oct 70-04 aug 70
Capt Norman Centers 05 aug 70-10 sep 70
1st Lt John Holly 11 sep 70-02 nov 70
1st Lt John Baker 03 nov 70-09 may 71
Cap Danny Cook 10 may 71-13 oct 72
Cap Philip Prince 14 oct 72-05 jul 73
Maj Gene Hendrickson 06 jul 73-30 sep 74
(deactivated for a while)

Maj Gordon Nash 27 may 87-the present
(reactivated)




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Commanding Officers, 2nd Force Recon Co.
Maj J Taylor Jun 58-jun 59Maj P Kelley jun 59-aug 60
Maj D Twomey aug 60-jun 62
Maj J Conroy jun 62-jan 64
Maj J Carothers Jr jan 64-jul 65
Maj R Rice jul 65-aug 65
Maj D Norris aug 65-jul 67
Maj J Clancy jul 67-apr 68
Maj W. Wildprett apr 68-jul 78
Maj R Prewitt jul 70-nov 70
Maj B Green Nov 70-jul 71
Cap A Little jul 71-nov 71
Maj R Reynolds Jr nov 71-aug 72
Cap W Harley aug 72-sep 72
Maj K Wakefield jul 73-jul 73
Maj T Taylor jul 73-jul 75
Cap F Blair jul 73-jun 76
Maj J Caper Jr jun 76-jun 78
Maj W Rollings jun 78-jan 80
Cap R Nelson jan 80-feb 81
Maj J Smyth feb 81-jul 82
Cap A Walker jul 82-aug 82
Maj K Conry aug 82-nov 84
Maj J Crockett nov
-Major ANDERSON : '89 - mid '91
Major CUNNINGHAM : mid '91-?
A little about 2nd Co: "3 companies: A,B,C
A- regular recon, field oriented, some jumpers and divers, field day experts, basically the boots. As a company they get **** on constantly. Very little $ invested in training. One platoon deploys per MEU
B- Shooter(CQB and "in extremi hostage resuce-trained)"s co. concentrate on DA only, therefore, very few of these marines attend ARS/ARC. Half ex force guys, one-quarter ex batallion shooters, and one-fourth boots(FNG's)(dont ask me why).deploy with MEU's
C- DRP,(DRP=Deep Recon. Patrol) basically all the old force bubbas are here. Most $ ,best training,no MEU but do deploy in other capacities.Dive/HALO.
There is to be no more "thrashing" Do it and find yourself in the grunts humping a baseplate.Pre-scuba aint what it used to be either.A kinder, gentler Reconnaissance Marine I guess.
Just some things I noted---There is a Marine Combatant Dive School in Panama City, FL 7 weeks, teach Dreager/also; HALO school is now in Yuma,AZ and when I went last winter(during the bad weather season), I got 33 jumps out of school, no sh*t."--Thank you to an active HM3.


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"Detachment Force Recon Company, 3d SRI Group was officially activated in April 1992. The Officer In Charge was Major Stewart Navarre who was dual-hatted as the SRIG S-3. He relinquished "command" to Captain Mark Deluna in July 92 who remained the O.I.C. until Capt Krivdo arrived the summer of 1993. I was the very first member of this unit in May of 1990- all by myself- until I got a Parachute Maintenance Chief, SSgt Mike Finley. I produced a T/E and a T/O for a three platoon structure based on 1st and 2d Force Recon Company's T/O/E's for one Direct Action Platoon, one R&S Platoon, and the third platoon dedicated to deep reconnaissance mission in support of III MEF. GySgt John Suniga relaced me as the SNCOIC then his relacement was GySgt Arno Mader, who I then replaced again once the units T/O/E were activated and we started to recieve qualified 0321/8653/8654's from 1st and 2d Force and Co A 3d Recon as well as members of the old DAP from Co B 3d Recon Bn at Schwab."---A Former FR member
Commanding Officers, 3d force recon Co.
Maj Gary Wilder 04 oct 65-06 jun 66
Cap W. C. Floyd 06 jun 66-28 nov 67
Maj JE Anderson 29 nov 67-10 may 68
Cap WF Snyder 01 dec 68-15 jan 69
1st Lt RM Hardin 01 dec 68-15 jan 69
Maj WR Holm 15 jan 69-13 may 69
Maj OR Kartchner 14 may 69-31 jul 69
Maj Alex Lee 01 aug 69-10 mar 70

(Cadried at zero strength) 10 mar 70-10 jul 70

1st Lt TS Hodge 10 Jul 70-27 aug 70
(deactivated)

Officer in Charge 3d Force Recon Detachment

Cap Kenneth Jordan 26 apr 66-26 mar 67
Cap W Mooney 27 mar 67-27 apr 67




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Commanding Officers, 5th Force Recon Company
Maj Richard Henry 31 Jan 67-03 Jan 68
Maj J Clews 04 jan 67-21 mar 69
Maj W Shaver 22 mar 69-15 oct 69
MAJ MIKE KRIVDO
CAPT MATT THOMAS
MAJ BILL COOK-Presently


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Missing in Action Force Recon Marines
1st Lt JT Egan 21 jan 66 Mountainside, NJ
LCpl ER Grissett 22 jan 66 San Juan TX
HM2 ML Laporte 05 sep 67 Los Angeles CA
SSgt DE Ayers 19 mar 70 Alderwood Manor, WA

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wrbones
07-07-02, 08:26 PM
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Missions:
Collect information on enemy
Engage enemy by supporting arms when so directed or authorized
Implant sensors
Capture selected prisoners
Conduct specialized terrain reconnaissance
Conduct initial terminal guidance operations.
The most recent missions I have heard of are one to Somalia to Apprehend General Aideed the Somali warlord, and desert storm 5 years ago.

Info on recent missions carried out by FR
"As to missions, I can say that from 83 to 88, there were several missions that occured and definately several that did not. There were NO Force Recon assets in Grenada. I remember watching the news about the invasion from French Creek with the rest of the company when it happened. I had several friends that did take part, but they were assigned to the platoon vfrom 2nd Recon Bn that was attached to the MAU (Marine Amphibious Unit) that went ashore. We did have some part in actions taken against the Iranians in 87 and 88. In fact, my old platoon (I had just left to take a post at the Special Warfare Center at Bragg) was the lead element onto one of the two oil platforms taken down by US forces. The other was by the SEALS, but they managed to torch the rig with improper naval gunfire and could'nt make a true clearing and securing. Something to do with flames and heat. Our guys used Marines assigned to the Naval Gunfire Detachment who knew what rounds to request and how. Still, there was fire on the rig the Marines hit and a Major (not Force Recon, but assigned as the OIC of the OP) tried to call an abort of the mission when he heard rounds cooking off and several explosions. The Force Recon officer (Lt. Walsh), took over and retracted that order resulting in the Marines staying on board and completing their search.
Other missions include the search & rescue op for the pilots of the shot down F-111 in our problems with them in ?85? The SEALS in that instance managed to get themselves out of the action by giving a ****-poor planning brief. In this case the Force Recon detachment CO gave a better brief and vgot a job for his guys. Force Recon did go to the Desert Shield/Storm thing in force, but did'nt have anything remarkable that I'm aware of. Actually the only thing I do remember is a story about some reserve Force Recon guys leaving some crypto gear undestroyed as they bugged out of some problem in Iraq. I was'nt there, and it is'nt right to point fingers, but one of the first things I remember about crypto was the need to ALWAYS have an immediate ability to destroy it if necessary.
Other than these missions, I am only aware of the ops pulled in Africa (Liberia and Somalia). The scary thing about Liberia was the orders that the guys going in could only take .45s and one long-gun per team (I think it was an M-16). The reasoning was that the Corps did'nt want the press to get pictures of their guys in action with all of the "black" gear. I personally would consider it suicidal to do a DA mission with probable long-term contact with only side-arms. Inside the house is so-so with a pistol but it is really going to suck when you get to the front door and have to move several hundred yards to your extract. This is one of the reasons I think that the Corps should give the DA mission to the line infantry companies. They have more firepower, more people, better commo, heavier response abilities, etc. If you need something done VERY quietly, then perhaps the Force Recon element could be the answer."--Thanks to RPG
"IN 92, 2 USMC RECON TMS, 2 SF TEAMS, AND A RANGER RECON TEAM DID AN OPSUPPORTING THE RANGERS AND 1ST LAR(USMC).AND WE OUT BRIEFED, OUT PLANNED, AND OUT EXECUTED THE OTHER TEMS EVEN THOUGH OTHER TM LDRS WERE E-7'S. THE 2 INCERTS WERE CHENOWA VEHICLES, AND STATIC LINE PARA, THE OTHER TEAMS EMPLOYED HALO AND STATIC LINE, AND BECAUSE WE ARE MARINES AND STUCK TO THE FUNDEMENTALS WE DID WELL ALTHOUGH WE ARE NOT "HIGH SPEED". iF THE VAUNTED S.E.A.L.S. WERE INVOLVED IM SURE THE RESULTS WOULD HAVE BEEN THE SAME."--SSgt. L.
"two six-man marine reconiassance teams were trapped in Kafji, a deserted Kuwaiti seaside town that had been by Iraqi troops. Trapped in an abandoned hotel, the marines evaded the enemy for nearly two days by rigging the hotel's staircase with antipersonnel mines and by calling in artillery strikes on nearby Iraqi armor. The Arab troops were not the first ones to enter Kuwait city. A twelve-man platoon from 2nd FORCE RECONNAISANCE had entered the city the previous evening and secured the American Embassy."--'Rage'




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Qualifications for Force Recon
Cannot be over rank of major.
Must pass Army's Airborne test
"1st Force Recon's current "indoc" or indoctrination program is a 48 hr. evolution. In order to even get invited to attend, you must either be an 03 (or infantry MOS) sergeant or very senior corporal or a communications MOS lance corporal. Generally, this means that the grunts (or infantrymen) who try out have between 3-4 yrs. of experience in the field and usually have been in either Scout Sniper Platoon (what used to be called STA platoon for Surveillance and Target Aquisition), battallion Recon or one of the many special "details" that a grunt can be assigned to (Embassy or Barracks duty). The requirements are currently less for communicators because of a need in the field. Once invited, the indoc is usually run as follows:
Day 1

0500 Marine Corps PFT
3 mile run (18:00min 100pts)
20 pullups (dead hang) 100pts
80 situps/2min. 100pts.
275 min. Required

0700 Marine Corps Obstacle Course
Finish twice in 5 min.

0900 Pool Work
500M swim in full cammies
30min. tread water in full camies
Retrieve 10lb. brick from 15' water/swim to end of pool(cammies)
Water Aerobics

1000 Level Test
Max Push ups 2min.
Max Sit ups 2min.
Max Pull ups 2min.
Max Flutter Kicks 2min.

1100 Forced March (or "Hump")
20 miles @ 4-5mph

1600 Rucksack Run
3-4 miles timed (max effort)

Day2

0530 Marine Corps PFT

0800 Uniform Inspection

1000 Interview with Team Leader and Company CO/XO
Those who make it physically may still not get selected. Usually it's attitude. One of the nice things about the unit is that the Company sets its own standards for testing and recruiting. Occasionally, outstanding applicants are chosen directly from the School of Infantry. This has both benefits and down sides as well. Once selected, the Marines are assigned to RIP platoon or Recon Indoctrination Platoon. This is similar to going back to bootcamp. The marines have only supervised liberty, physical training and classes at all time of the day and night. They are required to wear a sling rope with a snap link at all times and are thus called "ropers" by the team members. During this period, marines are introduced to the mission of recon usually completeing 1-2 mile open water swims with fins and many training patrols. The marines will stay in RIPP until they quit, are told to leave, or attend and pass the Amphibious Reconnaissance School in either Little Creek, VA or Coronado, CA. Once the marine finishes ARS, he is assigned the 0321 MOS or that of Reconnaissance Marine. From here many time he is either "pipe-lined" through to jump and then dive school or sent to one of the other specialty schools required for a fully qualified recon marine. "--An active duty FR member who wishes to remain anonymous

"the screening test is at 0430 meet then do a PFT run 2-3 miles to the pool then have 10 min survival float, utility floatation, no hands tread 30 sec, rescue drowing victim, 300 yd swim, 25 m underwater, 15 min close tread with other canindates, 4 25 m underwater swims then run to another place a few miles away, and do the obstacle course 2 times 1:30 time limit and the another run to squad area and a 3 mile run in 36 min with a 50 lb rucksack, after that you have many tests including memory and math plus an interview."
you must have at least a 285+ PFT score and be a 1st class or WSQ(water survival qualified) swim rating.Except for that last part, most of these quals are outdated.Everyone has told me this, in subtle ways to "we hjave to pass more than some pussy airborne test!", so here is a paragraph from a source of mine on qualification these days.Another explanation of tryout and qualification:" As for the officer qualifications, they go through the same qualification process as the enlisted men. This process is usually a qualification day, usually on a Saturday. Recruiting members of Force Recon teams will go to School of Infantry and try to get young enlisted Marines to try out. Members of local infantry companies, officers included, are also welcome to try out. Generally, around 60+ people will try out, but maybe 2 or 3, and possibly none, will ultimately finish. It's pretty tough and non-stop, with a pft, a lot of swimming, obstacle course, etc. The main thing is the mental aspect, although you must be in top physical shape and be an excellent swimmer as well. If you make it, that does not mean that you will be put in FR. It is denoted in your record book, and you will be looked upon as slots come open. Once in an FR platoon, you generally go to ARC (Amphibious Reconnaissance Course) which is either West Coast (Coronado, CA) or East Coast (Little Creek, VA) then you go to whatever schools you can get your hands on:SCUBA, Airborne, MFF. Army Ranger, SERE, Sniper, Army Special Forces, Army jumpmaster, pathfinder, jungle training, etc."




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wrbones
07-07-02, 08:28 PM
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Jump School at Ft Benning

a marine in the SARPELS equipment.

1st week-Air transportability (officers and SNCOs only)
2nd week-Ground training
3rd week-Tower training
4th week-Five novice jumps and qualification
After jump school, FR marines' skills are sharpened to that of a marine. They are made into Marine corps jump masters.They must make 5 jumps with the airborne silver wings, and then are awarded the coveted gold wings.Parachuting is not used extensively in real-life ops, FR marines preferring to infiltrate in a zodiac or any way by sea, but FR did parachute in to the embassy in Liberia a while ago, for lack of better ways.



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SCUBA School

Marines using an SDV.

1st week-Morning formation, conditioning in pool, which consists of laps and flutter kicks, instruction in dive equipment.
2nd week--"Ditching + Donning": enter pool, swim underwater to deep end at depth of 15 feet, remove facemask, snorkel, fins. Twin tanks left on bottom, placing weight belts on top. Take one breath of compressed Oxygen, surface, breathe, go down, put weight belt on and other equipment, begin using compressed air.
"Harrasment Dive" :Get in water, swim around edge at the bottom, and get "harrassed" by instructors, face masks pulled, fins removed, oxygen tanks removed, etc, for an hour. Failing either of these exercises results in discharge from SCUBA school.
3d week--- dives at 30 ft, then 40 , then 60 ft, practice of underwater navigation, do a "night dive"
Battalion Recon Marines are also sent to dive school.A FR marine tells me it's the toughest school he's been through.

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Force Recon Equipment

AN/PVS-5 NVG's.

Ram-air parachute.
Explanation and correction provided by a source as to this picture:The photo...... is that of a Military Free-Fall jumper, not a static-line jumper, which is what you do at Ft. Benning, five static-line jumps. (You make 20 freefall jumps at MFF, which is at Ft. Bragg, NC. Not all FR Marines get to go, and it is competitive.) Which brings me to the second problem: You have your picture of the parachute as being "static-line parachute." That is a ram-air parachute. Static line is merely a means of deploying the parachute, which is usually a round (you jump rounds at Army Airborne School) the static line is a line that is attached to a bar which runs to the door of the aircraft. When you exit, the line automatically opens the parachute. The picture that you have would more accurately go with the photo of the jumper with the HALO gear on. You use the square ram-air canopys for free-fall jumping, not normally for static line, but there are a few exceptions. With a round, you can jump with a lot more equipment and you really don't have to steer, since it goes where it wants to. With the ram-air, it is more like a wing; you can steer it where you want it to go to a certain degree although you can't jump with quite as much weight. Of course, you manually deploy the parachute by ripcord on the freefall jumps, rather than automatically with the static-line. Also, I would put a picture of a static-line jumper under your heading. You should be able to get one from an Army web sight. I would also rename the heading under the parachute, "Ram-Air Parachute."

These are just some of the many pieces of FR equipment available to explore at http://www.usmc.mil/factfile.

A Marine demonstrating the use of an M16A2

The HK-MP5 Come on you've heard of this one haven't you?

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SERE: Survival, Escape, Evasion, & Reconnaisance school, basically it is composed, like most USMC schools, of 2 parts: classroom training and prac-ap (practical application). the classrom parts deal mainly with the types of things one can expect to deal with when trapped behind lines, escaping captors, bailing out, etc. they teach you how to hide (lots of camoflauge training), how to travel (avoid roads, paths, etc.) what to eat, what not to eat, how to avoid capture, things like that. the 'prac' is basically like this: you get dumped off in a forest (although it was jungle for me, in the phillipines) or what-not, and you are given a knife, a bit of food (VERY DAMN LITTLE i might add) some waterproof matches, a compass, a light stick (flashlight) and rough directions. they try to make it as real as possible (by not giving you too many things that you might not *actually* have when escaping a p.o.w. camp, but enough so that they don't have marines dying in training) then you have to get to a designated pickup point without getting caught by a predermined time. if you are caught, you fail, if you don't make the window for extraction in time, you fail. simple as that. in real life you could substitute the word "die" for "fail" but even that is not a hard, fast rule...i have seem some pretty weird things in my time.


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SSS: Scout Sniper School- also a 2 part course. involves intense, rigorous training with basic shooting skills, determining wind velocities, range finding, target acquisition, camoflauge, setting up a hide, construction of ghilli suits, and LOTS AND LOTS of sitting in the bush getting eaten by every bug known to mankind, (and some unknown) waiting, totally motionless, to take a shot. (i once waited for 3 DAYS just to get a shot, lying perfectly still in a hide with my spotter) the final exam consists of shooting qual, eval of hide construction, moving in open terrain without cover of any sort, while many instructors try to capture (a.k.a.- shoot) you. if you are spotted, you fail. if you do not hit your designated target after your open-range low-crawl, you fail. as before- substitute "die" for "fail" there mare other things involved too, but that is the general idea.


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JEST: Jungle Environment Survival Training- once again, a 2 parter, class involves learing about all the nasties that are looking to do you in, all the nasties that will do you in if you eat them, and all the nasties that will make you wish you were "done in" if you come in contact with them. basically you learn about what you can or can't eat, where to find fresh water with no water purif. tabs, what plants are edible, which are poisonous, how NOT to get ameobic dysentary and die, what animals/reptiles/insects can kill you or make you wish you were dead, what kinds of diseases, bacteria, parasites, infections, or just plain nasty sh*t can f**k up your whole day in the jungle. another thing on insects. in class you are told the you WILL eat insects, bugs, etc. everyone says, "the F**K i WILL!" but after 3 days in a jungle with nothing to eat but bugs, you WILL eat anything. you aren't *ordered* to do it, but self preservation instincts can do funny things to one when he is hungry. :) every one says, i'll just get a boar, or a snake or something, but its funny, for as many things walk, crawl, or slither in a jungle, it's amazing how they are completely GONE when you are hungry and have no food... i guess it's one of mother nature's little pranks she likes to pull. basically, if you don't die, you pass. just like life in a way. :)
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wrbones
07-08-02, 10:05 AM
A seal....

wrbones
07-08-02, 01:46 PM
I noticed these while surfin the web.

wrbones
07-08-02, 01:47 PM
Freedom.

wrbones
07-08-02, 01:49 PM
One of my personal favorites, though I don't agree with all of his political decisions, I understand they were forced by economics, and necessity. I personnally believe him to be one of our two greatest presidents. The other being Washington.

wrbones
07-08-02, 04:34 PM
An American icon.

wrbones
07-08-02, 04:37 PM
A page from a book

wrbones
07-08-02, 04:45 PM
We are world renowned. Our legend will live with Pharoh's Armies, Alexanders Armies, the Hordes of the Khans, the Legions of Rome, and few others. We will be known as long as there is history to be kept. To be even the least part of this legend is an honor without par. You've made history Brothers and Sisters. It is my great honor to be one among you.

wrbones
07-11-02, 05:13 PM
We are not yet forgotten by our contemporaries.

Mark Bowden

There is no doubt that we have enemies. Many Americans have recently passed out of a long period of wishful thinking in that regard. The truth is that some of the things we hold most dear — freedom, equality, the rule of law — still are fighting words.

So long as they are, we must be prepared to fight. The men and women who serve our country have volunteered to do that sometimes dangerous, often thankless job on our behalf. They are better at it than any force in the world. I admire them, and I am grateful to them.



Mark Bowden is the author of "Black Hawk Down," the best-selling account of the 1993 U.S. raid in Mogadishu, Somalia.

















.

wrbones
07-11-02, 05:21 PM
The Eagle, Globe and Anchor



Eagle:
The Nation itself.
Globe:
World Wide Service.
Anchor:
Proud sea traditions.







Marine Corps colors


Red - stands for the Blood we have shed.

Blue - shows the World that we are true.

Gold - shows the World that we are bold.

Green - shows the World that we are lean and mean.



Eleven General Orders

To take charge of this post and all government property in view.

To walk my post in a military manner, keeping always on the alert, and observing everything that takes place within sight or hearing.

To report all violations of orders I am instructed to enforce.

To repeat all calls from post more distant from the guardhouse than my own.

To quit my post only when properly relieved.

To receive, obey, and pass on to the century who relieves me all orders from the Commanding Officer, Officer of the Day, and officers and noncommissioned officers of the guard only.

To talk to no one except in the line of duty.

To give the alarm in case of fire or disorder.

To call the corporal of the guard in any case not covered by instructions.

To salute all officers and all colors and standards not cased.

To be especially watchful at night and, during the time for challenging, to challenge all persons on or near my post, and to allow no one to pass without proper authority.

wrbones
07-11-02, 05:23 PM
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National Society of the Sons of the American Revolution
U.S. Flag Ettiquette
The flag is the embodiment of our ideals for the nation, and as such should be treated as a respected elder patriot. You might think of it as the Uncle Sam seen on WW II recruiting posters or as George Washington. Welcome it into your home. Display it with respect, put your hand over your heart in silent pledge of allegiance as it passes by on parade and sing our national anthem with a joyful heart that our flag is still there, representing freedom to choose our leaders.
Latest changes: 99Jun23 - tweak a bit / 99Jul15 - more on precedence / 99Jul19 - American Legion pamphlet / 99Aug15 - tweak format / 00Feb08 - Page manager changed / 02Jun24 - American Legion flag site link changed /


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The U.S. Flag
In 1942 Congress passed a joint resolution summarizing the customs and rules for display of the U.S. flag. The basic rules are

When flown from a pole the fly end of the flag should be able to fly freely. Do not secure it to a frame.
Display the flag only during daylight in good weather. Take it down when it gets dark or if it starts to rain or snow. You may display it at night in good weather if it is lighted.

Do not let the flag touch the ground, water, buildings, or merchandise. Do not carry the flag in a parade by the edges (flat) or attached to a pole along the top.

The flag should not be draped on a car or podium. Instead use red, white, and blue bunting with the blue at the top.
If the flag is used to cover a casket the canton should be placed over the left shoulder. Remove the flag before lowering the casket into the grave.


When displayed on a wall, the flag's canton should be on the left as you view it.

Use in parades or processions and display with other flags can get complicated. See other resources on this page.

Do not use the flag for advertizing a product and do not print or embroider the flag on anything designed for temporary use and discard.

When the flag is no longer fit for duty (threadbare, faded, torn, or dirty) it should be destroyed in a dignified manner (preferably by burning).

Dimensions of a Flag: These were set by executive order of President Taft on June 24, 1912. The fly is 1.9 times the hoist. The canton is 7/13 the hoist and 0.4 the fly. Each stripe is 1/13 the hoist. Stars fit into a circle that is 0.8 the width of a stripe. Commercial versions often vary somewhat from these dimensions. Earlier U.S. flags were not so elongated. Tassles and fringe are more appropriate for indoor than outdoor use.

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Flag Ettiquette, National Anthem, Pledge, and March
The U.S. Flag Act provides a guide to respectful behaviour toward our nation's flag and also to the
national anthem, pledge, and march. The Cornell Univ. Law site lists the U.S. Statutes, including Title 36: Chap. 10, which covers
Patriotic Customs

Here's a short quiz (suitable for audiences grade 5 or older) on some flag displays to test your knowledge of the flag code.


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Answers to Common Questions about Ettiquette
Suppose you want to display several U.S. flags (historic or current) at once? The 1988 Boy Scouts of America book Your Flag -- everything you want to know about the flag of the United States of America says on p 21 "Historic U.S. flags are due the same honor and respect that are given today's colors. When a historic flag is carried or displayed with a present-day flag, the modern flag takes precedence." The following are recommendations of the SAR flag committee:
-- The current (50-star) flag is accorded the position of highest respect. Other U.S. flags follow in the order of decreasing number of stars (or date of design), so that, the 15-star flag would take precedence over the 13-star flag.
-- Modern reproductions of historic flags take the same precedence as an original historic flag would have.
-- While the Continental Colors and other flags used before the 1777 resolution defining an official flag were not endorsed by legislation, they were honored through use by Continental troops in battle and should therefore be acccorded national rank below the 13-star flags (and in order of date of use).
-- Flags of other nations follow U.S. national flags (but precede state flags) in precedence when flown on U.S. territory. For SAR events the precedence of national flags is based on the date their SAR society was formed, otherwise alphabetic.
-- For SAR events the precedence of state flags is based on the date of their ratification of the Constitution or entry into the Union. State flags of the Revolutionary War era (for example, militia flags) would be accorded similar honor within the state ranking.

Should your Color Presentation Team Include Guards? It is traditional and appropriate to have people flanking the flag bearer(s) as symbolic (or real) guards for these symbols of government. They normally march on the outer flank of the front rank, but in narrow aisles they should follow the U.S. flag. In battles the best troops were always stationed with the flag to protect it under all circumstances. Flags were instrumental in helping the troops in the thick of battle know where the battle line was and helped commanders position their troops on the field.

How Should You Dispose of Worn or Torn Flags? Many civic organizations will take old flags and arrange for disposal in a dignified manner. Call an SAR Chapter, an American Legion post, or a Boy Scout troop when your flag is not longer fit for proud public display. Here is the
SAR disposal ceremony and a
Boy Scout disposal ceremony for worn-out U.S. flags with the respect they deserve.


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SAR Handbook Section on Ettiquette
FLAG PROTOCOL
The proper care and use of the Flag of the United States of America is the responsibility of every member of the Sons of the American Revolution, and every citizen of the United States of America.

The following information on flag protocol is taken from the United States Code, as revised by the 1st Session of the 99th Congress in 1985:

wrbones
07-11-02, 05:24 PM
The rest of the above.
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During rendition of the National Anthem when the flag is displayed, all present except those in uniform should stand at attention facing the Flag with the right hand over the heart. Men not in uniform should remove their headdress with their right hand and hold it at the left shoulder, and hand being over the heart. Persons in uniform should render the military salute at the first note of the anthem and retain the position until the last note. When the Flag is not displayed, those present should face the music and act in the same manner they would if the Flag were displayed there.
The Pledge of Allegiance to the Flag:
I pledge allegiance to the Flag of the United States of America, and to the Republic for which it stands, one Nation under God, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all.
This should be rendered by standing at attention facing the Flag with the right hand over the heart. When not in uniform, men should remove their headdress with their right hand and hold it at the left shoulder, the hand over the heart. Persons in uniform should remain silent, face the Flag, and render the military salute.

The wording of the pledge varies slightly from the original, which was drawn up in 1892. The pledge received official recognition by Congress in an Act of June 1942. The phrase "under God" was added to the pledge by a Congressional Act of June 1954.


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Display of the Flag
It is the universal custom to display the Flag only from sunrise to sunset on stationary flagstaffs in the open. The Flag should be hoisted briskly and lowered ceremoniously.

The Flag, when carried in a procession with another flag or flags, should be either on the marching right, that is, the Flag's own right, or, if there is a line of other flags, in front of the center of the line.

The Flag should not be displayed on a float in a parade except from a staff.

No other Flag or pennant should be placed above or, if on the same level, to the right of the Flag of the United States of America, except during church services conducted by naval Chaplains at sea, when the church pennant may be flown above the Flag during church services for the personnel of the Navy.

The Flag of the United States of America, when it is displayed with another flag against a wall from crossed staffs, should be on the right, the Flag's own right and its staff should be in front of the staff of the other flag. The Flag of the United States of America should be at the center and at the highest point of the group when a number of flags of states or localities or pennants of societies are grouped and displayed from staffs.

When displayed either horizontally or vertically against a wall, the union should be uppermost and to the Flag's own right, that is, to the observer's left. When displayed in a window, the Flag should be displayed in the same way, with the union or blue field to the left of the observer in the street.

When the Flag is displayed over the middle of the street, it should be suspended vertically with the union to the north in an east and west street, or to the east in a north and south street.

When used on a speaker's platform, the Flag, if displayed flat, should be displayed above and behind the speaker. When displayed from a staff in a church or public auditorium, the Flag of the United States of America should hold the position of superior prominence, in advance of the audience, and in the position of honor at the clergyman's or speaker's right as he faces the audience. Any other flag so displayed should be placed on the left of the clergyman or speaker or to the right of the audience.

The Flag should form a distinctive feature of the ceremony of unveiling a statue or monument, but it should never be used as a covering for a statue or monument.

The Flag when flown at half-staff should be first hoisted to the peak for an instant and then lowered to the half-staff position. The Flag should be again raised to the peak before it is lowered for the day. On Memorial Day, the Flag should be displayed at half-staff until noon only, then raised to the top of the staff.

When the Flag is used to cover a casket, it should be so placed that the union is at the head and over the left shoulder.

The Flag should not be lowered into the grave or allowed to touch the ground.

Respect for the Flag. No disrespect should be shown to the Flag of the United States of America; the Flag should not be dipped to any person or thing. Regimental colors, state flags, and organizational or institutional flags are to be dipped as a mark of honor.

The Flag should never be displayed with the union down, except as a signal of the dire distress in instances of extreme danger to life or property.

The Flag should never touch anything beneath it, such as the ground, the floor, water, or merchandise.

The Flag should never be carried flat or horizontally, but always aloft and free.

Bunting of blue, white and red, always arranged with the blue above, the white in the middle, and the red below, should be used for covering a speaker's desk, draping in front of the platform, and for decoration in general.

The Flag should never be used for advertising purposes in any manner whatsoever.

No part of the Flag should ever be used as a custom or athletic uniform. However, a Flag patch may be affixed to the uniform of military personnel, firemen, and members of patriotic organizations. The Flag represents a living country and is itself considered as a living thing. Therefore, the lapel Flag being a replica, should be worn on the left lapel near the heart.

The Flag, when it is in such condition that it is no longer a fitting emblem for display, should be destroyed in a dignified way, preferably by burning.

Hoisting, lowering or passing of the Flag. During the ceremony of hoisting or lowering the Flag, or when the Flag is passing in a parade or in review, all persons present except those in uniform should face the Flag and stand at attention with the right hand over the heart. Those present in uniform should render the military salute. When not in uniform, men should remove their headdress with their right hand and hold it at the left shoulder, the hand being over the heart. Aliens should stand at attention. The salute to the Flag in a moving column should be rendered at the moment the Flag passes.
Other Resources on Flag Ettiquette
The American Legion's flag site. includes its fine
illustrated booklet on the Flag Code -- Title 36, U.S.C., Chapter 10, as amended by P.L. 344, 94th Congress, approved July 7, 1976 -- with the pertinent sections of the Code reprinted in full. They include a section on
disposal of worn-out flags
Duane Streufert's flag site tells how and when to display it, when to salute, and lots more.

The CTSSAR flag site has similar information.


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Go to the NSSAR Home Page
For information about this page, contact the Page Manager
Explanations and disclaimers
URL: http://www.sar.org/colors/flagetti.htm

wrbones
07-11-02, 05:31 PM
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National Society of the Sons of the American Revolution
The Flag of the United States
Latest changes: 99May23 - add link to home page / 00Feb08 - Page manager changed /
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The following paragraphs are taken from the Statutes of the United States.
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Sec. 173. Display and use of flag by civilians; codification of rules and customs; definition
The following codification of existing rules and customs pertaining to the display and use of the flag of the United States of America is established for the use of such civilians or civilian groups or organizations as may not be required to conform with regulations promulgated by one or more executive departments of the Government of the United States. The flag of the United States for the purpose of this chapter shall be defined according to sections 1 and 2 of Title 4 and Executive Order 10834 issued pursuant thereto.
References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, probably means chapter 435 of Act June 22, 1942, 56 Stat. 380, which comprises sections 171 to 178 of this title.

Executive Order 10834, referred to in text, is Ex. Ord. No. 10834, Aug. 21, 1959, 24 F.R. 79, which is set out as a note under section 1 of Title 4, Flag and Seal, Seat of Government, and the States.

Amendments

1976 Amendment. Pub.L. 94-344 added provisions defining "flag of the United States" for purposes of this chapter according to sections 1 and 2 of Title 4 and Executive Order 10834.

Modification of rules and customs by President, see 36 USCA Sec. 178.


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NOTES OF DECISIONS
1. Purpose: Federal flag code is not intended to proscribe behavior but is fashioned as expression of prevalent custom and usage regarding display of American flag. Lapolla v. Dullaghan, 1970, 311 N.Y.S.2d 435, 63 Misc.2d 157.
2. Generally: Federal flag code provisions are not to be accorded full weight of statutory proscription but are an expression of custom and usage which is designed for, and should be used by civilian authorities, including school districts. Lapolla v. Dullaghan, 1970, 311 N.Y.S.2d 435, 63 Misc.2d 157.

3. State and local regulations: Flag regulations of State Commission of Education determining material and size of flag, manner and place of display, care of flag and pledge to the flag are constitutional and do not contravene either United States Constitution or New York State Constitution. Lapolla v. Dullaghan, 1970, 311 N.Y.S.2d 435, 63 Misc.2d 157.

This section and section 174-178 of this title codifying existing rules and customs for display and use of flag by civilians does not deprive the states of the power to regulate the conduct of citizens of the state toward the United States flag when such conduct is likely to produce a breach of the peace within their borders. People v. Von Rosen, 1958, 147 N.E.2d 327, 13 Ill.2d 68.


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36 USCA Sec. 174, Time and occasions for display
(a) Displays on buildings and stationary flagstaffs in open; night display: It is the universal custom to display the flag only from sunrise to sunset on buildings and on stationary flagstaffs in the open. However, when a patriotic effect is desired, the flag may be displayed twenty-four hours a day if properly illuminated during the hours of darkness.
(b) Manner of hoisting: The flag should be hoisted briskly and lowered ceremoniously.

(c) Inclement weather: The flag should not be displayed on days when the weather is inclement, except when an all weather flag is displayed.

Amendments

1976 Amendment. Subsec. (a). Pub.L. 94-344, Sec. 1(2), substituted provision permitting display of the flag for 24 hours a day to produce a patriotic effect if flag is properly illuminated during the hours of darkness, for provision permitting night display of the flag upon special occasions when it is desired to produce a patriotic effect.

Subsec. (c). Pub.L. 94-344, Sec. 1(3), added provision excepting display of all weather flag.

Subsec. (d). Pub.L. 94-344, Sec. 1(4), eliminated references to "when the weather permits" following "displayed on all days" and "Army Day, April 6" preceding "Easter Sunday", added reference to "Armed Forces Day, third Saturday in May", and substituted "third Monday in February" for "February 22", "the last Monday in May" for "May 30", and "second Monday in October" for "October 12".

Subsec. (e). Pub.L. 94-344, Sec. 1(5), struck out ", weather permitting, " following "displayed daily".


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Sec. 175. Position and manner of display
[Title 36 - Patriotic Societies and Observances
Chapter 10 - Patriotic Customs = 36 USC Sec. 175]
The flag, when carried in a procession with another flag or flags, should be either on the marching right; that is, the flag's own right, or, if there is a line of other flags, in front of the center of that line.

(a) The flag should not be displayed on a float in a parade except from a staff, or as provided in subsection (i) of this section.

(b) The flag should not be draped over the hood, top, sides, or back of a vehicle or of a railroad train or a boat. When the flag is displayed on a motorcar, the staff shall be fixed firmly to the chassis or clamped to the right fender.

(c) No other flag or pennant should be placed above or, if on the same level, to the right of the flag of the United States of America, except during church services conducted by naval chaplains at sea, when the church pennant may be flown above the flag during church services for the personnel of the Navy. No person shall display the flag of the United Nations or any other national or international flag equal, above, or in a position of superior prominence or honor to, or in place of, the flag of the United States at any place within the United States or any Territory or possession thereof: Provided, That nothing in this section shall make unlawful the continuance of the practice heretofore followed of displaying the flag of the United Nations in a position of superior prominence or honor, and other national flags in positions of equal prominence or honor, with that of the flag of the United States at the headquarters of the United Nations.

(d) The flag of the United States of America, when it is displayed with another flag against a wall from crossed staffs, should be on the right, the flag's own right, and its staff should be in front of the staff of the other flag.

(e) The flag of the United States of America should be at the center and at the highest point of the group when a number of flags of States or localities or pennants of societies are grouped and displayed from staffs.

(f) When flags of States, cities, or localities, or pennants of societies are flown on the same halyard with the flag of the United States, the latter should always be at the peak. When the flags are flown from adjacent staffs, the flag of the United States should be hoisted first and lowered last. No such flag or pennant may be placed above the flag of the United States or to the United States flag's right.

(g) When flags of two or more nations are displayed, they are to be flown from separate staffs of the same height. The flags should be of approximately equal size. International usage forbids the display of the flag of one nation above that of another nation in time of peace.

(h) When the flag of the United States is displayed from a staff projecting horizontally or at an angle from the window sill, balcony, or front of a building, the union of the flag should be placed at the peak of the staff unless the flag is at half staff. When the flag is suspended over a sidewalk from a rope extending from a house to a pole at the edge of the sidewalk, the flag should be hoisted out, union first, from the building.

(i) When displayed either horizontally or vertically against a wall, the union should be uppermost and to the flag's own right, that is, to the observer's left. When displayed in a window, the flag should be displayed in the same way, with the union or blue field to the left of the observer in the street.

(j) When the flag is displayed over the middle of the street, it should be suspended vertically with the union to the north in an east and west street or to the east in a north and south street.

(k) When used on a speaker's platform, the flag, if displayed flat, should be displayed above and behind the speaker. When displayed from a staff in a church or public auditorium, the flag of the United States of America should hold the position of superior prominence, in advance of the audience, and in the position of honor at the clergyman's or speaker's right as he faces the audience. Any other flag so displayed should be placed on the left of the clergyman or speaker or to the right of the audience.

(l) The flag should form a distinctive feature of the ceremony of unveiling a statue or monument, but it should never be used as the covering for the statue or monument.

wrbones
07-11-02, 05:33 PM
----continued...-----------------------------------------------------------------
(m) The flag, when flown at half-staff, should be first hoisted to the peak for an instant and then lowered to the half-staff position. The flag should be again raised to the peak before it is lowered for the day. On Memorial Day the flag should be displayed at half-staff until noon only, then raised to the top of the staff. By order of the President, the flag shall be flown at half-staff upon the death of principal figures of the United States Government and the Governor of a State, territory, or possession, as a mark of respect to their memory. In the event of the death of other officials or foreign dignitaries, the flag is to be displayed at half-staff according to Presidential instructions or orders, or in accordance with recognized customs or practices not inconsistent with law. In the event of the death of a present or former official of the government of any State, territory, or possession of the United States, the Governor of that State, territory, or possession may proclaim that the National flag shall be flown at half-staff. The flag shall be flown at half-staff thirty days from the death of the President or a former President; ten days from the day of death of the Vice President, the Chief Justice or a retired Chief Justice of the United States, or the Speaker of the House of Representatives; from the day of death until interment of an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court, a Secretary of an executive or military department, a former Vice President, or the Governor of a State, territory, or possession; and on the day of death and the following day for a Member of Congress. As used in this subsection--

(1) the term "half-staff" means the position of the flag when it is one-half the distance between the top and bottom of the staff;
(2) the term "executive or military department" means any agency listed under sections 101 and 102 of Title 5; and
(3) the term "Member of Congress" means a Senator, a Representative, a Delegate, or the Resident Commissioner from Puerto Rico.
(n) When the flag is used to cover a casket, it should be so placed that the union is at the head and over the left shoulder. The flag should not be lowered into the grave or allowed to touch the ground.
(o) When the flag is suspended across a corridor or lobby in a building with only one main entrance, it should be suspended vertically with the union of the flag to the observer's left upon entering. If the building has more than one main entrance, the flag should be suspended vertically near the center of the corridor or lobby with the union to the north, when entrances are to the east and west or to the east when entrances are to the north and south. If there are entrances in more than two directions, the union should be to the east.

Amendments

1976 Amendment. Subsec. (b). Pub.L. 94-344, Sec. 1(6) substituted "right fender" for "radiator cap".

Subsec. (f). Pub.L. 94-344, Sec. 1(7), substituted "to the United States flag's right" for "to the right of the flag of the United States".

Subsec. (i). Pub.L. 94-344, Sec. 1(8), substituted requirement that when the flag is displayed horizontally or vertical against a wall or in a window, the union should be uppermost and to the flag's own right for requirement that when the flag is displayed otherwise than from a staff, it should be displayed flat, whether indoors or out, or so suspended that it falls as free as though it were staffed.

Subsec. (k). Pub.L. 94-344, Sec. 1(9), eliminated provisions relating to flag position when displayed on a staff in the chancel of a church or speaker's platform of an auditorium.

Subsec. (m). Pub.L. 94-344, Sec. 1(10), added provisions relating to half-staff display of the flag on Memorial Day and upon the death of principal figures of the United States government and State governments and definitions of terms therein and eliminated provisions relating to the affixing of crepe streamers to spearheads and flagstaffs in a parade only on the order of the President.

Subsec. (o). Pub.L. 94-344, Sec. 1(11), added subsec. (o).

1953 Amendment. Subsec. (c). Act July 9, 1953, added second sentence.

1942 Amendment. Subsec. (i). Act Dec. 22, 1942, added "or so suspended that its folds fall as free as though the flag were staffed", and omitted provisions when displayed against a wall or in a window.

Subsec. (m). Act Dec. 22, 1942, substituted "lowering" for "hauling" in third sentence.

NOTES OF DECISIONS :

1. Generally: This section relating to proper manner of display of national flag are not intended to proscribe conduct but are merely declaratory or advisory; recurrent use of word "should" throughout such provisions is indicative of lack of penal purpose. Holmes v. Wallace, D.C.Ala.1976, 407 F.Supp. 493, affirmed 540 F.2d 1083.

This section respecting position of American flag when displayed or carried with other flags was not intended to proscribe behavior but was rather fashioned as an expression of prevalent custom regarding the display of the American flag. State of Del. ex rel. Trader v. Hodsdon, D.C.Del.1967, 265 F.Supp. 308.

2. Confederate flag: Congress, in enacting amendatory provision of this section prohibiting displaying of flags of international organizations or other nations in equal or superior prominence or honor to the flag of the United States, did not intend to prohibit state sponsored display of Confederate flag on dome of state capitol; provision of Flag Code was manifestly directed at other practices. Holmes v. Wallace, D.C.Ala.1976, 407 F.Supp. 493, affirmed 540 F.2d 1083.

3. Height of flag: Flying the flag of Republic of Panama and flag of United States in Canal Zone at equal heights on separate flag poles did not violate this section. Doyle v. Fleming, D.C.Canal Zone 1963, 219 F.Supp. 277.

4. Right of action: Provision of this code prohibiting display of flags of international organizations or other nations in equal or superior prominence or honor to flag of United States does not create any rights in private individuals and could not form basis for civil rights action alleging deprivation of rights, privileges, or immunities secured by constitution and laws. Holmes v. Wallace, D.C.Ala.1976, 407 F.Supp. 493, affirmed 540 F.2d 1083.

5. Injunction against display of flag: United States District Court did not have jurisdiction to enjoin defendant from flying the flag of the United Nations above and to the right of the American flag in front of his residence. State of Del. ex rel. Trader v. Hodsdon, D.C.Del.1967, 265 F.Supp. 308.


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Sec. 176. Respect for flag
No disrespect should be shown to the flag of the United States of America; the flag should not be dipped to any person or thing. Regimental colors, State flags, and organization or institutional flags are to be dipped as a mark of honor.

(a) The flag should never be displayed with the union down, except as a signal of dire distress in instances of extreme danger to life or property.

(b) The flag should never touch anything beneath it, such as the ground, the floor, water, or merchandise.

(c) The flag should never be carried flat or horizontally, but always aloft and free.

(d) The flag should never be used as wearing apparel, bedding, or drapery. It should never be festooned, drawn back, nor up, in folds, but always allowed to fall free. Bunting of blue, white, and red, always arranged with the blue above, the white in the middle, and the red below, should be used for covering a speaker's desk, draping the front of the platform, and for decoration in general.

(e) The flag should never be fastened, displayed, used, or stored in such a manner as to permit it to be easily torn, soiled, or damaged in any way.

(f) The flag should never be used as a covering for a ceiling.

(g) The flag should never have placed upon it, nor on any part of it, nor attached to it any mark, insignia, letter, word, figure, design, picture, or drawing of any nature.

(h) The flag should never be used as a receptacle for receiving, holding, carrying, or delivering anything.

(i) The flag should never be used for advertising purposes in any manner whatsoever. It should not be embroidered on such articles as cushions or handkerchiefs and the like, printed or otherwise impressed on paper napkins or boxes or anything that is designed for temporary use and discard. Advertising signs should not be fastened to a staff or halyard from which the flag is flown.

(j) No part of the flag should ever be used as a costume or athletic uniform. However, a flag patch may be affixed to the uniform of military personnel, firemen, policemen, and members of patriotic organizations. The flag represents a living country and is itself considered a living thing. Therefore, the lapel flag pin being a replica, should be worn on the left lapel near the heart.

(k) The flag, when it is in such condition that it is no longer a fitting emblem for display, should be destroyed in a dignified way, preferably by burning.

wrbones
07-11-02, 05:37 PM
.........continued. 1976 Amendment. Par. (a). Pub.L. 94-344, Sec. 1(12), inserted reference to instances of extreme danger to life or property.

Par. (d). Pub.L. 94-344, Sec. 1(13), added requirement that a flag should never be used as wearing apparel or bedding.

Par. (e). Pub.L. 94-344, Sec. 1(14), substituted "to permit" for "will permit".

Par. (i). Pub.L. 94-344, Sec. 1(15), eliminated provision that the flag should not be used on a costume or athletic uniform.

Par. (j). Pub.L. 94-344, Sec. 1(16), added par. (j). Former par. (j) was redesignated as (k).

Par. (k). Pub.L. 94-344, Sec. 1(16), redesignated former par. (j) as (k).

1942 Amendment. Par. (g). Act Dec. 22, 1942, added "any" before "part".

1. Refusal to salute or repeat pledge

Standing silently at attention while others salute and pledge allegiance to flag of the United States does not constitute offense of "disrespect to the flag." Bolling v. Superior Court for Clallam County, 1943, 133 P.2d 803, 16 Wash.2d 373.


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36 USCA Sec. 177, Conduct during hoisting, lowering or passing of flag
During the ceremony of hoisting or lowering the flag or when the flag is passing in a parade or in review, all persons present except those in uniform should face the flag and stand at attention with the right hand over the heart. Those present in uniform should render the military salute. When not in uniform, men should remove their headdress with their right hand and hold it at the left shoulder, the hand being over the heart. Aliens should stand at attention. The salute to the flag in a moving column should be rendered at the moment the flag passes.

Amendments

1976 Amendment. Pub.L. 94-344 substituted in first sentence "with right hand over the heart" for ", and salute" and struck out "Men without hats should salute in the same manner," preceding "Aliens should" and "Women should salute by placing right hand over the heart," preceding "The salute to the flag".

1942 Amendment. Act Dec. 22, 1942, substituted "military salute", for "right-hand salute" in second sentence, "should salute in the same manner", for "merely stand at attention" in fourth sentence, and added fifth sentence.

Modification of rules and customs by President, see 36 USCA Sec. 178.


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PROCLAMATION NO. 2605 - THE FLAG OF THE UNITED STATES
The flag of the United States of America is universally representative of the principles of the justice, liberty, and democracy enjoyed by the people of the United States; and

People all over the world recognize the flag of the United States as symbolic of the United States; and

The effective prosecution of the war requires a proper understanding by the people of other countries of the material assistance being given by the Government of the United States:

NOW, THEREFORE, by virtue of the power vested in me by the Constitution and laws of the United States, particularly by the Joint Resolution approved June 22, 1942, as amended by the Joint Resolution approved December 22, 1942 [sections 171-178 of this title], as President and Commander in Chief, it is hereby proclaimed as follows:

1. The use of the flag of the United States or any representation thereof, if approved by the Foreign Economic Administration, on labels, packages, cartons, cases, or other containers for articles or products of the United States intended for export as lend-lease aid, as relief and rehabilitation aid, or as emergency supplies for the Territories and possessions of the United States, or similar purposes, shall be considered a proper use of the flag of the United States and consistent with the honor and respect due to the flag.

2. If any article or product so labelled, packaged or otherwise bearing the flag of the United States or any representation thereof, as provided for in section 1, should, by force of circumstances, be diverted to the ordinary channels of domestic trade, no person shall be considered as violating the rules and customs pertaining to the display of the flag of the United States, as set forth in the Joint Resolution approved June 22, 1942, as amended by the Joint Resolution approved December 22, 1942 (U.S.C.Supp. II, Title 36, secs. 171-178) [sections 171-178 of this title], for possessing, transporting, displaying, selling or otherwise transferring any such article or product solely because the label, package, carton, case, or other container bears the flag of the United States or any representation thereof.


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
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URL: http://www.sar.org/colors/flag-act.htm

wrbones
07-11-02, 05:46 PM
Some Marines....well, they're not grunts...... per se


United States Marine Corps Women


The Few Of The Few

Marine Corps Brotherhood's Home Page | GySgt Rob's Marine Corps Career | United States Marine Corps Customs and Traditions | United States Marine Corps History | United States Marine Corps Units | United States Marine Corps Unit Patches | United States Marine Corps Women | Fleet Marine Force Corpsman | Marine Corps Units From Around The World | United States Marine Corps Photo Page | United States Marine Corps Image page 1 | United States Marine Corps Image page 2 | United States Marine Corps image page 3 | United States Marine Corps image page 4 | Marine Corps Online Gaming Groups | Marine Corps Catalog Page | Marine Corps Brotherhood Contact Page | Marine Corps Brotherhood Guest Book Page
Women Marines became a permanent part of the regular Marine Corps on 12 June 1948 when Congress passed the Women's Armed Services Integration Act (Public Law 625), but they had already proved themselves in two world wars.

During World War I, Opha Mae Johnson was the first of 305 women to be accepted for duty in the Marine Corps Reserve on 12 August 1918. Most women filled clerical billets at Headquarters, Marine Corps to release male Marines qualified for active field service to fight in France. Other women filled jobs at recruiting stations throughout the United States. On 30 July 1919, after the war was over, orders were issued for separation of all women from the Corps.

Twenty-five years later, women were back to "free a man to fight." The Marine Corps Women's Reserve was established in February 1943. Before World War II ended, a total of 23,145 officer and enlisted women reservists served in the Corps. Unlike their predecessors, women Marines in World War II performed over 200 military assignments. In addition to clerical work, their numbers included parachute riggers, mechanics, radio operators, map makers, motor transport support, and welders. By June 1944, women reservists made up 85 percent of the enlisted personnel on duty at Headquarters, Marine Corps and almost two-thirds of the personnel manning all major posts and stations in the United States and Hawaii. Following the surrender of Japan, demobilization of the Women's Reserve proceeded rapidly, but a number of them returned to service as regulars under the 1948 Act.

In August 1950, for the first time in history, the Women Reserves were mobilized for the Korean War where the number of women Marines on active duty reached a peak strength of 2,787. Like the women of two previous wars, they stepped into stateside jobs and freed male Marines for combat duty. Women continued to serve in an expanding range of billets and by the height of the Vietnam War, there were about 2,700 women Marines on active duty serving both stateside and overseas. During this period, the Marine Corps also began opening up career-type formal training programs to women officers and advanced technical training to enlisted women. By 1975, the Corps approved the assignment of women to all occupational fields except infantry, artillery, armor and pilot/air crew. Approximately 1,000 women Marines were deployed to Southwest Asia for Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm in 1990-1991.

wrbones
07-11-02, 05:48 PM
Milestones for women officers include: Colonel Margaret A. Brewer was appointed to a general officer's billet with the rank of brigadier general becoming the first woman general officer in the history of the Corps (1978); Colonel Gail M. Reals became the first woman selected by a board of general officers to be advanced to brigadier general (1985); Brigadier General Carol A. Mutter assumed command of the 3d Force Service Support Group, Okinawa, becoming the first woman to command a Fleet Marine Force unit at the flag level (1992); 2d Lieutenant Sarah Deal became the first woman Marine selected for Naval aviation training (1993); Brigadier General Mutter became the first woman major general in the Marine Corps and the senior woman on active duty in the armed services (1994); Lieutenant General Mutter became the first woman Marine and the second woman in the history of the armed services to wear three stars (1996.)

Today, 768 women account for 4.3 percent of all Marine officers and 8,051 women make up 5.1 percent of the active duty enlisted force in the Marine Corps. These numbers continue to grow as do opportunities to serve. Ninety-three percent of all occupational fields and 62 percent of all positions are now open to women. Like their distinguished predecessors, women in the Marine Corps today continue to serve proudly and capably in whatever capacity their country and Corps requires.

wrbones
07-11-02, 05:50 PM
I would swear before God that this guy is DI Sgt McCarthy, and the tall feller in the background is requesting permission for some more PT! Get Some!

wrbones
07-11-02, 05:56 PM
Drill Instructors come in different sizes and shape, too. This little thing looks a little...well, the quiet ones are always a bit crazy.....

wrbones
07-16-02, 04:10 AM
one shot, one kill...






M16 A2 5.56mm Rifle




Primary function: Infantry weapon
Manufacturer: Colt Manufacturing and Fabrique Nationale Manufacturing Inc.
Length: 39.63 inches (100.66 centimeters)
Weight, with 30 round magazine: 8.79 pounds (3.99 kilograms)
Bore diameter: 5.56mm (.233 inches)
Maximum effective range:
Area target: 2,624.8 feet (800 meters)
Point target: 1,804.5 feet (550 meters)
Muzzle velocity: 2,800 feet (853 meters) per second
Rate of fire:
Cyclic: 800 rounds per minute
Sustained: 12-15 rounds per minute
Semiautomatic: 45 rounds per minute
Burst: 90 rounds per minute
Magazine capacity: 30 rounds
Unit Replacement Cost: $586

Features: The M16A2 5.56mm rifle is a lightweight, air-cooled, gas-operated, magazine-fed, shoulder- or hip-fired weapon designed for either automatic fire (3-round bursts) or semiautomatic fire (single shot) through the use of a selector lever. The weapon has a fully adjustable rear sight. The bottom of the trigger guard opens to provide access to the trigger while wearing winter mittens. The upper receiver/barrel assembly has a fully adjustable rear sight and a compensator which helps keep the muzzle down during firing. The steel bolt group and barrel extension are designed with locking lugs which lock the bolt group to the barrel extension allowing the rifle to have a lightweight aluminum receiver.

Background: The M16A2 rifle is a product improvement of the M16A1 rifle. The improvements are:
* a heavier, stiffer barrel than the barrel of the M16A1;
* a redesigned handguard, using two identical halves, with a round contour which is sturdier and provides a better grip when holding the rifle;
* a new buttstock and pistol grip made of a tougher injection moldable plastic that provides much greater resistance to breakage;
* an improved rear sight which can be easily adjusted for windage and range;
* a modified upper receiver design to deflect ejected cartridges, and preclude the possibility of the ejected cartridges hitting the face of a left-handed firer;
* a burst control device, that limits the number of rounds fired in the automatic mode to three per trigger pull, which increases accuracy while reducing ammunition expenditure;
* a muzzle compensator, designed to reduce position disclosure and improve controllability and accuracy in both burst and rapid semi-automatic fire;
* a heavier barrel with a 1 in 7 twist to fire NATO standard SS 109 type (M855) ammunition which is also fired from the M249 Squad Automatic Weapon (SAW). This further increases the effective range and penetration of the rifle cartridge. The M16A2 will also shoot the older M193 ammunition designed for a 1 in 12 twist.

POC: Headquarters Marine Corps, Division of Public Affairs, 2 Navy Annex, Washington, DC 20380-1775; (703) 614-6251.

wrbones
07-16-02, 04:15 AM
one shot, one kill...






M2 .50 Caliver Heavy Machine Gun


Builder: Saco Defense
Length: 61.42 inches (156 centimeters)
Weight:
Gun: 84 pounds (38 kilograms)
M3 Tripod (Complete): 44 pounds (19.98 kilograms)
Total: 128 pounds (58 kilograms)
Bore diameter: .50 inches (12.7mm)
Maximum effective range: 2000 meters with tripod mount
Maximum range: 4.22 miles (6.8 kilometers)
Cyclic rate of fire: 550 rounds per minute
Unit Replacement Cost: $14,002

Features: The Browning M2 .50 Caliber Machine Gun, Heavy barrel is an automatic, recoil operated, air-cooled machine gun with adjustable headspace and is crew transportable with limited amounts of ammunition over short distances. By repositioning some of the component parts, ammunition may be fed from either the left or right side. A disintegrating metallic link-belt is used to feed the ammunition into the weapon. This gun is has a back plate with spade grips, trigger, and bolt latch release. This gun may be mounted on ground mounts and most vehicles as an anti-personnel and anti-aircraft weapon. The gun is equipped with leaf-type rear sight, flash suppressor and a spare barrel assembly. Associated components are the M63 antiaircraft mount and the M3 tripod mount.

Background: Numerous manufacturers originally produced the M2 Heavy Machine Gun.

POC: Headquarters Marine Corps, Division of Public Affairs, 2 Navy Annex, Washington, DC 20380-1775; (703) 614-6251.

wrbones
07-16-02, 04:18 AM
one shot, one kill...





M224 60mm Light Weight Mortar


Length: 40 inches (101.6 centimeters)
Weight: 46.5 pounds (21.11 kilograms)
Bore diameter: 60mm
Maximum effective range: 2.17 miles (3490 meters)
Rates of fire:
Maximum: 30 rounds/minute
Sustained: 20 rounds/minute
Unit Replacement Cost: $10,658

Mission: To provide the company commander with an indirect-fire weapon.

Features: The M224 60mm Lightweight Mortar is a smooth bore, muzzle loading, high-angle-of-fire weapon. The cannon assembly is composed of the barrel, combination base cap, and firing mechanism. The mount consists of a bipod and a base plate which is provided with screw type elevating and traversing mechanisms to elevate/traverse the mortar. The M64 sight unit is attached to the bipod mount via a standard dovetail. An additional short range sight is attached to the base of the cannon tube for firing the mortar on the move and during assaults. It has a spring-type shock absorber to absorb the shock of recoil in firing.

Background: The M224 replaced the older (WWII era) M2 and M19, 60mm Mortars. These weapons only possessed 2,200 yards of effective range. The M224 was designed to fire all types of the older ammunition, but its primary rounds are of the newer, longer-range type.

POC: Headquarters Marine Corps, Division of Public Affairs, 2 Navy Annex, Washington, DC 20380-1775; (703) 614-6251.

wrbones
07-16-02, 04:23 AM
one shot, one kill...





12 guage shotgun


Primary function: Manually operated (pump), repeating shotgun.
Length: 41.75 inches (106.05 centimeters)
Weight: 8 pounds (3.63 kilograms)
Bore diameter: 12 gauge
Maximum effective range: 50 yards (45.7 meters) with "00" buckshot load
Unit Replacement Cost: $600

Features: The 12 gauge shotgun is a manually operated (pump), repeating shotgun, with a seven-round tubular magazine, a modified choke barrel, ghost ring sights, and is equipped with a bayonet attachment, sling swivels and a standard length military stock with phenolic plastic buttplate. (Some models have wooden and/or folding stocks.) This special purpose individual weapon is used for guard duty, prisoner supervision, local security, riot control, and any situation which requires the use of armed personnel with inherent limited range and ammunition penetration.

Background: Various models of shotgun have been in service use since 1901. The current inventory consists of four different 12 gauge shotgun models: Remington 870, Winchester 1200, Mossberg 500, and Mossberg 590. (Weight and length of the weapon depend on the manufacturer.)

POC: Headquarters Marine Corps, Division of Public Affairs, 2 Navy Annex, Washington, DC 20380-1775; (703) 614-6251.

wrbones
07-16-02, 04:28 AM
K-Bar

wrbones
07-16-02, 04:29 AM
Reviving the brand


After Danforth Brown's death in March of 1960, the company changed hands several times. In 1961, the Brown family sold KA-BAR to two Olean businessmen who in turn sold it to a group of business entrepreneurs that eventually led the company into Chapter 11. Unfortunately, attempts to reorganize failed and the company was forced into liquidation. With intentions of re-establishing the business, Robinson Knife Company purchased the assets of the company, but in 1966 ended up selling the KA-BAR operations to Cole National Corporation in Cleveland, Ohio.


Cole, already involved somewhat in the cutlery business and experienced as an aggressive marketing operation, started to rebuild the KA-BAR name and product line. The entire product line was reorganized with emphasis on a moderately broad range of folding knives. A line of fixed blade hunting knives was also implemented which focused on KA-BAR's well-known leather handle construction. In addition, in 1975, as a part of its efforts to revive the company, KA-BAR also established and supported a special Collectors' Division. Its purpose was to produce significant and commemorative knives, to recreate famous antique KA-BAR knives and actively support the development and enjoyment of knife collecting in general.

The first knife produced by the new Collectors Club was in response to public demand for the reintroduction of the knife made famous in World War II. A full-dress version of the U.S.M.C. Fighting / Utility Knife was produced in limited number and released by the Club in 1976. It was a beautifully etched and gold filled fixed blade fighter made to the exact specifications, with exception of embellishments, of the original used during WWII. The knife would commemorate 200 years of service to the nation by the United States Marine Corps. The U.S.M.C. Commemorative was so enthusiastically received that one year later, the company returned the knife, in its standard issue form, to regular production.

A short time later, Cole National Corporation went into a period of business difficulty that put the company into bankruptcy in 1982. During liquidation the KA-BAR product line was purchased by American Consumer Products and eventually moved to Solon, Ohio. American Consumer Products, already involved in the cutlery business, rebuilt the business and operated it until June 1996, when the KA-BAR product line and assets were sold to Alcas Corporation of Olean, New York.

Alcas Corporation and the return to Western New York

© 1999-2000 KA-BAR Knives Inc. All Rights Reserved

wrbones
07-16-02, 04:31 AM
The Story of KA-BAR
Reviving the brand


After Danforth Brown's death in March of 1960, the company changed hands several times. In 1961, the Brown family sold KA-BAR to two Olean businessmen who in turn sold it to a group of business entrepreneurs that eventually led the company into Chapter 11. Unfortunately, attempts to reorganize failed and the company was forced into liquidation. With intentions of re-establishing the business, Robinson Knife Company purchased the assets of the company, but in 1966 ended up selling the KA-BAR operations to Cole National Corporation in Cleveland, Ohio.


Cole, already involved somewhat in the cutlery business and experienced as an aggressive marketing operation, started to rebuild the KA-BAR name and product line. The entire product line was reorganized with emphasis on a moderately broad range of folding knives. A line of fixed blade hunting knives was also implemented which focused on KA-BAR's well-known leather handle construction. In addition, in 1975, as a part of its efforts to revive the company, KA-BAR also established and supported a special Collectors' Division. Its purpose was to produce significant and commemorative knives, to recreate famous antique KA-BAR knives and actively support the development and enjoyment of knife collecting in general.

The first knife produced by the new Collectors Club was in response to public demand for the reintroduction of the knife made famous in World War II. A full-dress version of the U.S.M.C. Fighting / Utility Knife was produced in limited number and released by the Club in 1976. It was a beautifully etched and gold filled fixed blade fighter made to the exact specifications, with exception of embellishments, of the original used during WWII. The knife would commemorate 200 years of service to the nation by the United States Marine Corps. The U.S.M.C. Commemorative was so enthusiastically received that one year later, the company returned the knife, in its standard issue form, to regular production.

A short time later, Cole National Corporation went into a period of business difficulty that put the company into bankruptcy in 1982. During liquidation the KA-BAR product line was purchased by American Consumer Products and eventually moved to Solon, Ohio. American Consumer Products, already involved in the cutlery business, rebuilt the business and operated it until June 1996, when the KA-BAR product line and assets were sold to Alcas Corporation of Olean, New York.

Alcas Corporation and the return to Western New York

© 1999-2000 KA-BAR Knives Inc. All Rights Reserved

wrbones
07-16-02, 11:31 AM
one shot, one kill...





M249 (SAW) Light Machine Gun


Primary function: Hand-held combat machine gun
Manufacturer: Fabrique Nationale Manufacturing, Inc.
Length: 40.87 inches (103.81 centimeters)
Weight:
With bipod and tools: 15.16 pounds (6.88 kilograms)
200-round box magazine: 6.92 pounds (3.14 kilograms)
30-round magazine: 1.07 pounds (.49 kilograms)
Bore diameter: 5.56mm (.233 inches)
Maximum effective range: 3281 feet (1000 meters) for an area target
Maximum range: 2.23 miles (3.6 kilometers)
Rates of fire:
Cyclic: 725 rounds per minute
Sustained: 85 rounds per minute
Unit Replacement Cost: $4,087

Features: The Squad Automatic Weapon (SAW), or 5.56mm M249 is an individually portable, gas operated, magazine or disintegrating metallic link-belt fed, light machine gun with fixed headspace and quick change barrel feature. The M249 engages point targets out to 800 meters, firing the improved NATO standard 5.56mm cartridge.
The SAW forms the basis of firepower for the fire team. The gunner has the option of using 30-round M16 magazines or linked ammunition from pre-loaded 200-round plastic magazines. The gunner's basic load is 600 rounds of linked ammunition.

Background: The SAW was developed through an initially Army-led research and development effort and eventually a Joint NDO program in the late 1970s/early 1980s to restore sustained and accurate automatic weapons fire to the fire team and squad. When actually fielded in the mid-1980s, the SAW was issued as a one-for-one replacement for the designated "automatic rifle" (M16A1) in the Fire Team. In this regard, the SAW filled the void created by the retirement of the Browning Automatic Rifle (BAR) during the 1950s because interim automatic weapons (e.g. M-14E2/M16A1) had failed as viable "base of fire" weapons. Early in the SAW's fielding, the Army identified the need for a Product Improvement Program (PIP) to enhance the weapon. This effort resulted in a "PIP kit" which modifies the barrel, handguard, stock, pistol grip, buffer, and sights.

POC: Headquarters Marine Corps, Division of Public Affairs, 2 Navy Annex, Washington, DC 20380-1775; (703) 614-6251.

wrbones
07-16-02, 11:52 AM
Shoulder-Launched Multipurpose Assault Weapon (SMAW)


Primary function: Portable anti-armor rocket launcher.
Length:
To Carry: 29.9 inches (75.95 centimeters)
Ready-to-Fire: 54 inches (137.16 cm)
Weight:
To Carry: 16.6 pounds (7.54 kg)
Ready-to-Fire (HEDP): 29.5 pounds (13.39 kg)
Ready-to-Fire (HEAA): 30.5 pounds (13.85 kg)
Bore diameter: 83mm
Maximum effective range:
1 x 2 Meter Target: 250 meters
Tank-Sized Target: 500 meters
Introduction date: 1984
Unit Replacement Cost: $13,000

Mission: To destroy bunkers and other fortifications during assault operations as well as other designated targets with the dual mode rocket and to destroy main battle tanks with the HEAA rocket.

Features: The SMAW is an 83mm man-portable weapon system consisting of the MK153 Mod 0 launcher, the MK 3 Mod 0 encased HEDP rocket, the MK 6 Mod 0 encased HEAA rocket, and the MK217 Mod 0 spotting rifle cartridge. The launcher consists of a fiberglass launch tube, a 9mm spotting rifle, an electro-mechanical firing mechanism, open battle sights, and a mount for the MK42 Mod 0 optical and AN/PVS-4 night sights. The High Explosive, Dual Purpose (HEDP) rocket is effective against bunkers, masonry and concrete walls, and light armor. The High Explosive Anti-Armor (HEAA) rocket is effective against current tanks without additional armor. The 9mm spotting rounds are ballistically matched to the rockets and increase the gunner's first round hit probability. Training is accomplished with the MK7 Mod 0 encased common practice rocket and the MK213 Mod 0 noise cartridge.
The SMAW MK153 Mod 0 launcher is based on the Israeli B-300 and consists of the launch tube, the spotting rifle, the firing mechanism, and mounting brackets. The launch tube is fiberglass/epoxy with a gel coat on the bore. The spotting rifle is a British design and is mounted on the right side of the launch tube. The firing mechanism mechanically fires the spotting rifle and uses a magneto to fire the rocket. The mounting brackets connect the components and provide the means for boresighting the weapon. The encased rockets are loaded at the rear of the launcher. The spotting cartridges are stored in a magazine in the cap of the encased rocket.

Inventory: 1364

Background: The SMAW system (launcher, ammunition and logistics support) was fielded in 1984 as a Marine Corps unique system. At that time, the SMAW included the MK153 Mod 0 launcher, the MK3 Mod 0 HEDP encased rocket, the MK4 Mod 0 practice rocket and the MK217 Mod 0 9mm spotting cartridge. The MK6 Mod 0 encased HEAA rocket is being added to the inventory. The MOD 0 has demonstrated several shortcomings. A series of modifications is currently planned to address the deficiencies. They include a resleeving process for bubbled launch tubes, rewriting/drafting operator and technical manuals, a kit that will reduce environmental intrusion into the trigger mechanism, and an optical sight modification to allow the new HEAA rocket to be used effectively against moving armor targets. Recently fielded were new boresight bracket kits that, when installed, will solve the loss of boresight problem between launch tube and spotting rifle. During Desert Storm, 150 launchers and 5,000 rockets were provided to the U.S. Army. Since then, the Army has shown increased interest in the system.

wrbones
07-16-02, 11:59 AM
Dragon Weapon System


Primary function: Anti-armor weapon system
ManBuilder: McDonnell Douglas Aerospace and Missile Systems and Raytheon
Length:
Launcher: 45.4 inches (115.32 cm)
Missile: 33.3 inches (84.58 centimeters)
Weight:
Ready to Fire: 33.9 lbs (Day Tracker)
48.7 lbs (Night Tracker)
Day Tracker (Sights): 6.75 lbs
Thermal Night Tracker (w/1 bottle and battery): 21.65 lbs
Maximum effective range: 3281 feet (1000 meters)
Time of flight: 11.2 seconds
Armor penetration: Will defeat T-55, T-62, or T-72 w/o added armor
Unit Replacement Cost:
Night Tracker System: $51,000
Day Tracker System: $13,000

Mission: Primary: To engage and destroy armor and light armored vehicles. Secondary: defeat hard targets such as bunkers and field fortifications.

Features: The warhead power of Dragon makes it possible for a single Marine to defeat armored vehicles, fortified bunkers, concrete gun emplacements, or other hard targets. The launcher consists of a smoothbore fiberglass tube, breech/gas generator, tracker and support, bipod, battery, sling, and forward and aft shock absorbers. Non-integral day and night sights are required to utilize the Dragon.
The complete system consists of the launcher, the tracker and the missile, which is installed in the launcher during final assembly and received by the Marine Corps in a ready to fire condition. The launch tube serves as the storage and carrying case for the missile. The night tracker operates in the thermal energy range.

Inventory:
Day tracker: 1055
Night tracker: 923

Background: The first-generation Dragon, a 1000-meter system requiring 11.2 seconds flight-to-target time, was developed for the US Army and fielded in 1970. A product improvement program (PIP) was initiated by the Marine Corps in 1985 and managed by NSWC Dahlgren. The PIP, designated Dragon II, was designed to increase warhead penetration effectiveness by 85%. The Dragon II missile is actually a retrofit of warheads to the first generation missiles already in the Marine Corps inventory.

wrbones
07-16-02, 12:04 PM
M101A1 105mm Light Howitzer, Towed


Primary function: Light, towed, general purpose field artillery weapon used as a contingency weapon during Marine Air Ground Task Force deployments which are not conducive to mobility deficiencies of the M198 155mm Howitzer.
Manufacturer: Rock Island Arsenal
Length: 19.5 feet (5.94 meters)
Width: 7.25 feet (2.21 meters)
Height: 5.66 feet (1.73 meters)
Weight: 4,980 pounds (2,260 kilograms)
Bore diameter: 105 mm
Maximum effective range: 6.99 miles (11.27 kilometers)
Rates of fire:
Maximum: 10 rounds per minute
Sustained: 3 rounds per minute
Unit Replacement Cost: $196,341

Features: The M101A1 105mm Light Howitzer, Towed is a general purpose, light field artillery weapon consisting of a cannon, 105mm howitzer (M2A2); recoil mechanism, M2 series; and carriage, 105mm Howitzer, M2A2. It can be used for direct or indirect fire. The cannon consists of a tube assembly, breech ring, and locking ring. The cannon is mounted on the recoil sleigh assembly. The firing mechanism is a continuous pull (self cocking) type activated by pulling a lanyard. The cannon is single-loaded, air-cooled and uses semi-fixed ammunition. The carriage is of the single axle and split trail type. The trails are divided at emplacement, but are drawn together and locked during travel. A drawbar is provided for securing to a prime mover. The carriage consists of an equilibrator, shield, elevating mechanism, cradle, gear, elevating arcs, traversing mechanism, top carriage, wheels, and trails. The recoil mechanism is a constant hydropneumatic type shock absorber that decreases the energy of the recoil gradually and so avoids violent movement of the cannon or carriage. It is installed in the cradle of the carriage.

Inventory: 248



Date last modified: 11/30/95

wrbones
07-16-02, 03:50 PM
MK93 Heavy Machine Gun Mounting System


Primary function: To optimize operational capabilities of the M2 and MK19 machine guns.
Manufacturer: NSWC, Crane, Indiana
Characteristics:
Height 6.8 in.
w/MK 175 16.8 in.
Width 10.0 in.
w/MK 175 10.0 in.
Length 22.0 in.
w/MK 175 22.0 in.
Weight 30.2 lbs.
w/MK 175 40.2 lbs.
Unit Replacement Cost: $3,200

Features: The MK93 is a dual purpose, soft mount for the MK19 Grenade Machine Gun (GMG) and M2 Heavy Machine Gun (HMG). The MK93 is designed for use with either a tripod or a vehicular mount (using the MK175 pintle pedestal). The MK93 requires no external adapters or tools to mount either weapon system, making change-overs much easier. The use of a soft mount improves the accuracy of the M2 Machine Gun by attenuating the recoil. The MK93 consists of a carriage and cradle assembly, train stop bracket, ammunition can holder, a bolt-on small pintle, a bolt-on large pintle, and stowage bar assembly.

Inventory:

Background: The MK93 will provide the capacity to optimize operational capabilities of the M2 HMG and the MK19 GMG in both vehicular and ground mounted modes. It provides platform stabilization, improves accuracy, and increases hit probability while decreasing the time and effort to install and interchange weapons. The MK93 replaces the complicated MK64 MOD 5 cradle.


Date last modified: 12/15/95

wrbones
07-16-02, 03:51 PM
Here's that MK19

wrbones
07-16-02, 03:54 PM
T.O.W.

wrbones
07-16-02, 04:30 PM
Light Armored Vehicle-25 (LAV-25)


Primary function: Provide strategic mobility to reach and engage the threat, tactical mobility for effective use of fire power, fire power to defeat soft and armored targets, battlefield survivability to carry out combat missions.
Length: 251.6 inches (6.39 meters)
Height: 106.0 inches, (101.0 with pintle mount removed) (2.69 meters)
Width: 98.4 inches (turret facing forward) (2.5 meters)
Weight: 24,100 pounds (10,941 kilograms)
Combat Weight: 28,200 pounds (12,802.8 kilograms)
Range: 410 miles (660.1 kilometers)
Speed: 62 mph (99.2 km/hr)
Swim speed: 6 mph (9.6 km/hr)
Crew: Driver, gunner, commander and 6 troops
Armament: M242 25mm chain gun, M240 7.62mm machine gun mounted coaxial to the main gun
Unit Replacement Cost: $900,000

Features: The LAV-25 is an all-terrain, all-weather vehicle with night capabilities. It is air transportable via C-130, C-141, C-5 and CH-53 E. When combat loaded there are 210 ready rounds and 420 stowed rounds of 25 mm ammunition as well as 400 ready rounds and 1200 stowed rounds of 7.62mm. There are 8 ready rounds and 8 stowed rounds of smoke grenades. A supplementary M240E1 7.62mm machine gun can be pintle-mounted at the commander's station in the turret. The LAV-25 is fully amphibious with a maximum of 3 minutes preparation.

Inventory: 401



Date last modified: 12/14/95

wrbones
07-16-02, 04:33 PM
Assault Amphibian Vehicle Command Model 7A1 (AAVC7A1)


Description: The AAVC7A1 is an assault amphibious full-tracked landing vehicle. The vehicle gives you a moble task force communication center in water operations from ship to shore and to inland objectives after ashore.
Communication Center: The system consists of five radio operator stations, three staff stations, and two master stations. The command comm system contains equipment to provided external sercure radio transmission between each the AAVC7A1 vehicle and other vehicles and radios. Internal communication between each crew station is provided.<BR>
Manufacturer: FMC Corporation
Date First Prototype: 1979
Date First Production Vehicle: 1983
Crew: 3
Weight:
Unloaded: 46,314 Pounds (With EAAK, Less Crew, Fuel, OEM, and Ammo)
Combat Equipped: 50,758 Pounds (EAAK, Crew, Fuel, OEM, and Ammo)
Fuel Capacity: 171 Gallons
Cruising Range:
Land at 25 MPH: 300 Miles
Water at 2600 RPM: 7 Hours
Cruising Speed:
Land: 20 to 30 MPH
Water: 6 MPH
Maximum Speed Forward:
Land: 45 MPH
Water: 8.2 MPH
Maximum Speed Reverse:
Land: 12 MPH
Water: 4.5 MPH
Engine:
Make: Cummins
Model: VT400
Type: 4 Cycle, 8 Cylinder, 90' Vee, Water Cooled, Turbocharged
Fuel: Multifuel
Cargo Compartment:
Length: 13.5 Feet
Width: 6.0 Feet
Height: 5.5 Feet
Volume: 445.5 Cubic Feet
Capacity: 21 Combat Equipped Troops
Armament and Ammunition: 7.62 Machine Gun
Unit Replacement Cost: $2.2 - 2.5 Million


Date last modified: 02/13/96

wrbones
07-17-02, 08:16 AM
HAROLD C. AGERHOLM
Private First Class
United States Marine Corps Reserve

Harold Agerholm
Citation
Private First Class Harold C. Agerholm
United States Marine Corps Reserve
For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving the Fourth Battalion, Tenth Marines, Second Marine Division, in action against enemy Japanese forces on Saipan, Marianas Islands, 7 July 1944. When the enemy launched a fierce, determined counterattack against our positions and overran a neighboring artillery battalion, Private First Class Agerholm immediately volunteered to assist in the efforts to check the hostile attack and evacuate our wounded. Locating and appropriating an abandoned ambulancve jeep, he repeatedly made extremely perilous trips undeer heavy rifle and mortar fire and single-handedly loaded and evacuated approximately forty-five casualties, working tirelessly and with utter disregard for his own safty during a gruelling period of more than three hours. Despite intense, persistent enemy fire, he ran out to aid two men whom he believed to be wounded Marines but was himself mortally wounded by a Japanese sniper while carrying out his hazardous mission. Private First Class Agerholm's brilliant initiative, great personal valor and self-sacrificing efforts in the face of almost certain death reflect the highest credit upon himself and the United States Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.

Harry S. Truman
President of the United States

wrbones
07-17-02, 08:19 AM
CHARLES G. ABRELL
Corporal
United States Marine Corps

Charles Abrell
Citation
Corporal Charles G. Abrell
United States Marine Corps
For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a Fire Team Leader in Company E, Second Battalion, First Marines, First Marine Division (Reinforced), in action against enemy aggressors forces in Korea on 10 June 1951. While advancing with his platoon in an attack against well-concealed and heavily-fortified enemy hill positions, Corporal Abrell voluntarily rushed forward through the assaulting squad which was pinned down by a hail of intense and accurate autonatic-weapons fire from a hostile bunker situated on commanding ground. Although previously wounded by enemy hand-grenade fragments, he proceeded to carry out a bold, single-handed attack against the bunker, exhorting his comrades to follow him. Sustaining two additional wounds as he stormed toward the emplacement, he resolutely pulled the pin from a grenade clutched in his hand and hurled himself bodily into the bunker with the live missile still in his grasp. Fatally wounded in the resulting explosion which killed th entire enemy gun crew within the stronghold, Corporal Abrell, by his valiant spirit of self-sacrifice in the face of certain death, served to inspore all his comrades and contributed directly to the success of his platoon in attaining its objective. His superb courage and heroic initiative sustain and enhance the highest traditions of the United States Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.

Harry S. Truman
President of the United States

wrbones
07-17-02, 08:22 AM
DONALD G. COOK
Colonel
United States Marine Corps

Colonel Cook
Citation
The President of the United States in the name of Congress takes pride in presenting the MEDAL OF HONOR posthumously to

Colonel Donald G. Cook
United States Marine Corps

For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while interned as a Prisoner of War by the Viet Cong in the Republic of Vietnam during the period 31 December 1964 to 8 December 1967. Despite the fact that by so doing he knew he would bring about harsher treatment for himsself, Colonel (then Captain) Cook established himself as the senior prisoner, even though in actuality he was not. Repeatedly assuming more than his share of the manual labor in order that the other Prisoners of War could improve the state of their health, Colonel Cook willingly and unselfishly put the interests of his comrades before that of his own well-being and, eventually, his life. Giving more needy men his medicine and drug allowance while constantly nursing them, he risked infection from contagious deseases while in a rapidly deteriorating state of health. This unselfish and exemplary conduct, coupled with his refusal to stray even the slightest form the Code of Conduct, earned him the deepest respect from not only his fellow prisoners, but his captors as well. Rather than negotiate for his own release or better treatment, he steadfastly frustrated attempts by the Viet Cong to break his indomitable spirit, and passed this same resolve onto the men whose well-being he so closely associated himself. Knowing his refusals would prevent his release prior to the end of the war, and also knowing his chances for prolonged survival would be small in the event of his continued refusal, he choose nevertheless to adhere to a Code of Conduct far above that which could be expected. His personal valor and exceptional spirit of loyality in the face of almost certain death reflected the highest credit upon Colonel Cook, the Marine Corps, and the United States Naval Service.

Jimmy Carter
President of the United States

wrbones
07-17-02, 08:33 AM
WILLIAM D. HAWKINS
First Lieutenant
United States Marine Corps Reserve

William D. Hawkins
First Lieutenant William D. Hawkins
United States Marine Corps Reserve

Citation
For valorous and gallant conduct above and beyond the call of duty as Commanding Officer of a Scout Sniper Platoon attached to the Second Marines, Second Marine Division, in action against Japanese-held Tarawa in the Gilbert Islands, November 20 and 21, 1943. The first to disembark from the jeep lighter, First Lieutenant Hawkins unhesitatingly moved forward under heavy enemy fire at the end of Betio pier, neutralizing emplacements in coverage of troops assaulting the main breach positions. Fearlessly leading his men to join the forces fighting desperately to gain a beachhead, he repeatedly risked his life throughout the day and night to direct and lead attacks on pill boxes and installations with grenades and demolition. At dawn on the following day, First Lieutenant Hawkins returned to the dangerous mission of clearing the limited beachhead of japanese resistance, personally initiating an assault on a hostile fortified by five enemy machine guns and, crawling forward in the face of withering fire, boldly fired point-blank into the loopholes and completed the destruction with grenades. Refusing to withdraw after being seriously wounded in the chest during this skirmish, First Lieutenant Hawkins steadfastly carried the fight to the enemy, destroying three more pill boxes before he was caught in a burst of Japanese shell fire and mortally wounded. His relentless fighting spirit in the face of formidable opposition and his exceptionally daring tactics were an inspiration to his comrades during the most crucial phase of the battle and reflect the highest credit upon the United States Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.

Franklin D. Roosevelt
President of the United States.

Footnote: First Lieutenant William Dean Hawkins was born on April 19, 1914 to Mrs. C. Jane Hawkins in Fort Scott, Kansas. He attended Lamar and Alta Vista schools in El Paso, Texas and graduated at age 16 from El Paso High School. He attended Texas School of Mines (now University of Texas at El Paso) on a scholarship. Though he claimed to oppose war, he joined the Marines in January 1942. He fought in the campaign for the Solomon Islands and accepted a battlefield commission in November 1942. He was Commanding Officer of a Scout-Sniper Platoon in the assault of Tarawa and was cited for his actions November 20 and 21, 1943 when he was killed. After the island was secured the airstrip was named Hawkins Field in his honor. A destroyer was named in his honor, The USS Hawkins (DD-873) and commissioned February 10, 1945. He is buried at the National Memorial Cemetery of the Pacific, Honolulu, Hawaii.

wrbones
07-17-02, 08:35 AM
JIMMIE E. HOWARD
Gunnery Sergeant
United States Marine Corps

Jimmie E. Howard

Citation

Gunnery Sergeant Jimmie E. Howard
United States Marine Corps

For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as a Platoon Leader, Company "C", First Reconnaissance Battalion, First Marine Division (Reinforced), Fleet Marine Force, Pacific, in action against communist insurgent forces in Quang Tin Province, Republic of Vietnam, on 16 June 1966. During the night Gunnery Sergeant(then Staff Sergeant) Howard's platoon of eighteen men was assaulted by a numerically superior force consisting of a well-trained North Vietnamese Battalion employing heavy small arms fire, automatic weapons and accurate mortar fire. Without hesitation he immediately organized his platoon to personally supervise the precarious defense of Hill 488. Utterly oblivious to the unrelenting fury of hostile enemy weapons fire and hand grenades he repeateldly exposed himself to enemy fire while directing the operation of his small force. As the enemy attack progressed and the enemy fire increased in volume and accuracy and despite his mounting casualties, Gunnery Sergeant Howard continued to set an example of calmness and courage. Moving from position to position, he inspired his men with dynamic leadership and courageous fighting spirit until he was struck and painfully wounded by fragments from an enemy hand grenade. Unable to move his legs and realizing the the position was becoming untenable, he distributed his ammunition to the remaining members of his platoon and skillfully directed friendly aircraft and artillery strikes with uncanny accuracy upon the enemy. Dawn found the beleaguered force diminished by five killed and all but one wounded. When rescue helicopters proceeded to Gunnery Sergeant's position, he directed them away from his badly mauled force and called additional air strikes and directed devastating small arms fire on the enemy thus making the landing zone secure as possible. His valiant leadership and courageous fighting spirit served to inspire the men of his platoon to heroic endeavor in the face of overwhelming odds, and reflected the highest credit upon Gunnery Sergeant Howard, the Marine Corps and the United States Naval Service.

Lyndon B. Johnson
President of the United States

Footnote: From a article in the Milwaukee Journal dated 8/21/67. Jimmie Howard was a native of Burlington, Iowa but at the time of his death he was residing in San Diego, California. His wife, his son and 5 daughters were in attendence when Gunnery Sergeant Howard was presented the Medal of Honor. It is also noteworthy to mention that of the 18 men (including Gunnery Sergeant Howard)who engaged the Viet Cong Battalion of more than 300 men, 12 survived. Four platoon members were awarded the Navy Cross and the other 13 recieved the Silver Star for heroic action. The Marine unit killed 200 of the Viet Cong during the 12 hour attack. Gunnery Sergeant Jimmie Howard had also been awarded the Silver Star in previous combat action during the Korean war.

wrbones
07-17-02, 08:39 AM
Larry L. Maxam
Corporal
United States Marine Corps


Larry L. Maxam

Citation

Corporal Larry L. Maxam
United States Marine Corps

For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a Fire Team Leader with Company D, First Battalion, Fourth Marines, Third Marine Division in the Republic of Vietnam. On 2 February 1968, the Cam Lo District Headquarters came under extremely heavy rocket, artillery, mortar, and recoilless rifle fire from a numerically superior enemy force, destroying a portion of the defensive perimenter. Corporal Maxam, observed the enemy massing for an assault into the compound across the remaining defensive wire, instructed his Assistant Fire Team Leader to take charge of the fire team, and unhesitatingly proceeded to the weakened section of the perimenter. Completely exposed to the concentrated enemy fire, he sustained multiple fragmantation wounds from exploding grenades as he ran to an abandoned machine gun and commenced to deliver effective fire on the advancing enemy. As the enemy directed maximum fire power against the determined Marine, Corporal Maxam's position received a direct hit from a rocket propelled grenade, knocking him backwards and inflicting severe fragmentation wounds to his face and right eye. Although momentarily stunned and in intense pain, Corporal Maxam courageously resumed his firing position and subsquently was struck again by small arms fire. With resolute determination, he gallantly continued to deliver intense machine gun fire, causing the enemy to retreat through the defensive wire to positions of cover. In a desperate attempt to silence his weapon, the North Vietnamese threw hand grenades and directed recoilless rifle fire against him inflicting two additional wounds. Too weak to reload his machine gun, Corporal Maxam fell to a prone position and valiantly continued to deliver effective fire with his rifle. After one and a half hours, during which he was hit repeatedly by fragments from exploding grenades and concentrated small arms fire, he succumbed to his wounds, having successfully defended nearly one half of the perimeter single-handedly. Corporal Maxam's aggressive fighting spirit, inspiring valor and selfless devotion to duty reflected great credit upon himself and the Marine Corps and upheld the highest traditions of the United States Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.

Richard M. Nixon
President of the United States

Footnote: Larry L. Maxam was born January 9, 1948 in Glendale, California. He attended public schools in Burbank, California until the latter part of 1964. Corporal Maxam enlisted in the United States Marine Corps March 6, 1965 in Los Angeles, California, and completed boot camp June 1965 at MCRD San Diego, California. His combat training was finished July 1965 at Camp Pendleton, California. The Marine Aviation Detachment, Naval Air Technical Training Center in Jacksonville, Florida provided additional education from August 1965 to February 1966. While still in the United States Larry was attached to Company B, 2nd Battalion, 8th Marines, 2nd Marine Division, FMF in Camp Lejeune, North Carolina as a rifleman and received a promotion to Private First Class 2 April 1966. He then joined Company E, 2nd Battalion November 1966, but served TAD as a fireman with Headqurters and Service Company, CCS in Quantico, Virginia. Larry was promoted to Lance Corporal 1 January 1967. Maxam was in Puerto Rico at Camp Garcia, Force Troops, FMF, Atlantic, Vieques Island and in the Caribbean with Company F, Battalion Landing Team 2/6 until May 1967 serving as a rifleman. Larry Maxam arrived in the Republic of Vietnam July 1967 serving as a rifleman, radioman and squad leader attached to Company D, 1st Battalion, 4th Marines, 3rd Marine Division (Rein.) FMF being promoted to Corporal 1 October 1967. Corporal Larry L. Maxam gallantly gave his life for our country four months and one day from his last promotion, while partiipating in operation "Kentucky" 2 February 1968 at Cam Lo District Headquarters, Quang Tri Province, Republic of Vietnam. As of April 1976 Larry Leonard Maxam is survived by his mother Mrs. Alice Maxam, sister Mrs. Linda Maxam Cooper and brother Mr. Robin Lee Maxam all residing in Australia. Corporal Maxam lies at rest at the National Memorial Cemetery in Honolulu, Hawaii.

wrbones
07-17-02, 08:41 AM
WILLIAM R. PROM
Lance Corporal
United States Marine Corps

William Prom
Citation




LANCE CORPORAL WILLIAM R. PROM UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS


For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a Machine Gun Squad Leader with Company I, Third Battalion, Third Marines, Third Marine Division in action against the enemy in the Republic of Vietnam. While returning from a reconnaissance operation on 9 February 1969 during Operation TAYLOR COMMON, two platoons of Company I came under an intense automatic weapons fire and grenade attack from a well-concealed North Vietnamese Army force in fortified positions. The leading element of the platoon was isolated and several Marines were wounded. Lance Corporal Prom immediately assumed control of one of the machine-guns and began to deliver return fire. Disregarding his own safety he advanced to a position from which he could more effectively deliver covering fire while first aid was administered to the wounded men. Realizing that the enemy would have to be destroyed before the injured Marines could be evacuated, Lance Corporal Prom again moved and delivered a heavy volume of fire with such accuracy that he was instrumental in routing the enemy, thus permitting his men to regroup and resume the march. Shortly thereafter, the platoon again came under heavy fire in which one man was critically wounded. Reacting instantly Lance Corporal Prom moved forward to protect his injured comrade. Unable to continue his own fire because of his severe wounds, he continued to advance to within a few yards of the enemy positions. There, standing in full view of the enemy, he accurately directed the fire of his support elements until he was mortally wounded. Inspired by his heroic actions, the Marines launched an assault that destroyed the enemy. Lance Corporal Prom's indomitable courage inspiring initiative and selfless devotion to duty upheld the highest traditions of the Marine Corps and the United states Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.


RICHARD M. NIXON
President of the United States

wrbones
07-17-02, 08:49 AM
M88A1E1 Hercules Recovery Vehicle


Primary function: Improved recovery vehicle for main battle tanks.
Manufacturer: BMY Combat Systems Division
Length: 27.13 feet (8.27 meters)
Width: 11.25 feet (3.43 meters)
Height: 10.25 feet (3.12 meters)
Weight, gross, fully loaded: 70 tons
Power plant: 12 cylinder, air cooled, supercharged, fuel injection diesel engine
Performance: Vehicle Speed: 30 MPH (maximum)
Cruising range: 300 miles
Fording depth: Without kit: 56 inches
With kit: 102 inches
Grade ascending: 60%
Trench crossing: 103 inches
Boom capacity: 35 tons
Vehicle hoisting capability:
Spade up: 6 tons
Spade down: 35 tons
Fuel capacity: 400 gallons
Crew: 4 enlisted
Unit Replacement Cost: $2,050,000

Features: System improvements consist of an upgraded power pack (engine and transmission), higher winch and hoist capacities, increased tow/breaking performance, and increased armor protection. The Hercules includes additional weight (approximately 70 tons), an upgraded suspension, power-assisted brakes, and an improved hydraulic system. The Hercules will possess an auxiliary power unit to operate no-load recovery components and impact tools without running the engine. Additionally, the Hercules will be transportable worldwide by highway, rail, marine, and air in accordance with the Military Traffic Management Command Transportation Engineering Agency (MTMCTEA) transportability engineering analysis.

Background: The M88A1E1 Hercules Recovery Vehicle will provide towing capability for modern and future tanks. The Hercules is replacing the present M88 which is unable to tow the newer, heavier M1A1 tanks.


Date last modified: 01/16/96

wrbones
07-18-02, 10:50 AM
Military Justice 101 - Part 4

Nonjudicial Punishment (Article 15)
















Nonjudicial punishment (NJP) refers to certain limited punishments which can be awarded for minor disciplinary offenses by a commanding officer or officer in charge to members of his/her command. In the Navy and Coast Guard, nonjudicial punishment proceedings are referred to as "captain's mast" or simply "mast." In the Marine Corps, the process is called "office hours," and in the Army and Air Force, it is referred to as "Article 15." Article 15 of the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ), and Part V of the Manual for Courts-Martial constitute the basic law concerning nonjudicial punishment procedures. The legal protection afforded an individual subject to NJP proceedings is more complete than is the case for nonpunitive measures, but, by design, is less extensive than for courts-martial.

The Term "Officer in Charge" does not mean an "OIC," as a "job title," but rather a specific officer where the flag officer holding general court-martial authority designates the office as the "officer in charge." In most cases, for NJP purposes, such designations are limited to the Coast Guard and Naval Services.

"Mast," "Article 15," and "office hours" are procedures whereby the commanding officer or officer in charge may:

Make inquiry into the facts surrounding minor offenses allegedly committed by a member of his command;
afford the accused a hearing as to such offenses; and
dispose of such charges by dismissing the charges, imposing punishment under the provisions of Art. 15, UCMJ, or referring the case to a court-martial.
What "mast," "Article 15," and "office hours" are not:

They are not a trial, as the term "nonjudicial" implies;
a conviction; and
an acquittal if a determination is made not to impose punishment.
Offenses punishable under article 15. Article 15 gives a commanding officer power to punish individuals for minor offenses. The term minor offense" has been the cause of some concern in the administration of NJP. Article 15, UCMJ, and Part V, para. 1e, MCM (1998 ed.), indicate that the term "minor offense" means misconduct normally not more serious than that usually handled at summary court-martial (where the maximum punishment is thirty days' confinement). These sources also indicate that the nature of the offense and the circumstances surrounding its commission are also factors which should be considered in determining whether an offense is minor in nature. The term "minor offense" ordinarily does not include misconduct which, if tried by general court-martial, could be punished by a dishonorable discharge or confinement for more than one year. The military services, however, have taken the position that the final determination as to whether an offense is "minor" is within the sound discretion of the commanding officer.

Nature of offense. The Manual for Courts-Martial, 1998 edition, also indicates in Part V, para. 1e, that, in determining whether an offense is minor, the "nature of the offense" should be considered. This is a significant statement and often is misunderstood as referring to the seriousness or gravity of the offense. Gravity refers to the maximum possible punishment, however, and is the subject of separate discussion in that paragraph. In context, nature of the offense refers to its character, not its gravity. In military criminal law, there are two basic types of misconduct-disciplinary infractions and crimes. Disciplinary infractions are breaches of standards governing the routine functioning of society. Thus, traffic laws, license requirements, disobedience of military orders, disrespect to military superiors, etc., are disciplinary infractions. Crimes, on the other hand, involve offenses commonly and historically recognized as being particularly evil (such as robbery, rape, murder, aggravated assault, larceny, etc.). Both types of offenses involve a lack of self-discipline, but crimes involve a particularly gross absence of self-discipline amounting to a moral deficiency. They are the product of a mind particularly disrespectful of good moral standards. In most cases, criminal acts are not minor offenses and, usually, the maximum imposable punishment is great. Disciplinary offenses, however, are serious or minor depending upon circumstances and, thus, while some disciplinary offenses carry severe maximum penalties, the law recognizes that the impact of some of these offenses on discipline will be slight. Hence, the term "disciplinary punishment" used in the Manual for Courts-Martial, 1998 edition, is carefully chosen.

Circumstances. The circumstances surrounding the commission of a disciplinary infraction are important to the determination of whether such an infraction is minor. For example, willful disobedience of an order to take ammunition to a unit engaged in combat can have fatal consequences for those engaged in the fight and, hence, is a serious matter. Willful disobedience of an order to report to the barbershop may have much less of an impact on discipline. The offense must provide for both extremes, and it does because of a high maximum punishment limit. When dealing with disciplinary infractions, the commander must be free to consider the impact of circumstance since he is considered the best judge of it; whereas, in disposing of crimes, society at large has an interest coextensive with that of the commander, and criminal defendants are given more extensive safeguards. Hence, the commander's discretion in disposing of disciplinary infractions is much greater than his latitude in dealing with crimes.

Imposition of NJP does not, in all cases, preclude a subsequent court-martial for the same offense. See Part V, para. 1e, MCM (1998 ed.) and page 4-34. Additionally, Article 43(b)(2), UCMJ, prohibits the imposition of NJP more than two years after the commission of the offense.

Cases previously tried in civil courts. Military regulations permit the use of NJP to punish an accused for an offense for which he has been tried by a domestic or foreign civilian court, or whose case has been diverted out of the regular criminal process for a probationary period, or whose case has been adjudicated by juvenile court authorities, if authority is obtained from the officer exercising general court-martial jurisdiction (In the Air Force, such permission can only be granted by the Secretary of the Air Force).

NJP may not be imposed for an act tried by a court that derives its authority from the United States, such as a Federal district court.

Clearly, cases in which a finding of guilt or innocence has been reached in a trial by court-martial cannot be then taken to NJP. However, the last point at which cases may be withdrawn from court-martial before findings with a view toward NJP is presently unclear.

Off-base offenses. Commanding officers and officers in charge may dispose of minor disciplinary infractions (which occur on or off-base) at NJP. Unless the off-base offense is one previously adjudicated by civilian authorities, there is no limit on the authority of military authorities to resolve such offenses at NJP.

Right of the accused to demand trial by court-martial. Except in the case of a person attached to or embarked in a vessel, an accused may demand trial by court-martial in lieu of NJP. The key time factor in determining whether or not a person has the right to demand trial is the time of the imposition of the NJP and not the time of the commission of the offense.

|
Information derived from Handbook of Military Justice & Civil Law, Courtesy of the United States Navy

wrbones
07-18-02, 10:59 AM
Military Justice 101 - Part IV

Nonjudicial Punishment

(Page 2)

Prehearing. Nonjudicial punishment results from an investigation into unlawful conduct and a subsequent hearing to determine whether and to what extent an accused should be punished. Generally, when a complaint is filed with the commanding officer of an accused (or if that commander receives a report of investigation from a military law enforcement source), that commander is obligated to cause an inquiry to be made to determine the truth of the matter.

If, after the preliminary inquiry, the commanding officer determines that disposition by NJP is appropriate, the commanding officer must cause the accused to be given certain advice. The commanding officer need not give the advice personally, but may assign this responsibility to the legal officer or another appropriate person. The following advice must be given, however.

a. Contemplated action. The accused must be informed that the commanding officer is considering the imposition of NJP for the offense(s).

b. Suspected offense. The suspected offense(s) must be described to the accused and such description should include the specific article of the UCMJ which the accused is alleged to have violated.

c. Government evidence. The accused should be advised of the information upon which the allegations are based or told that he may, upon request, examine all available statements and evidence.

d. Right to refuse NJP. Unless the accused is attached to or embarked in a vessel (in which case he has no right to refuse NJP), he should be told of his right to demand trial by court-martial in lieu of NJP; of the maximum punishment which could be imposed at NJP; of the fact that, should he demand trial by court-martial, the charges could be referred for trial by summary, special, or general court-martial; of the fact that he could not be tried at summary court-martial over his objection; and that, at a special or general court-martial, he would have the right to be represented by counsel.

e. Right to confer with independent counsel. United States v. Booker, 5 M.J. 238 (C.M.A. 1977), held that, because an accused who is not attached to or embarked in a vessel has the right to refuse NJP, he must be told of his right to confer with independent counsel regarding his decision to accept or refuse the NJP if the record of that NJP is to be admissible in evidence against him should the accused ever be subsequently tried by court-martial. A failure to properly advise an accused of his right to confer with counsel, or a failure to provide counsel, will not, however, render the imposition of NJP invalid or constitute a ground for appeal.

Hearing rights. If the accused does not demand trial by court-martial within a reasonable time after having been advised of his rights (usually 3 workdays unless the commander grants an extension), or if the right to demand court-martial is not applicable, the accused shall be entitled to appear personally before the commanding officer for the NJP hearing. At such hearing, the accused is entitled to:

(1) Be informed of his rights under Art. 31, UCMJ (Self Incrimination);

(2) be accompanied by a spokesperson provided by, or arranged for, the member, and the proceedings need not be unduly delayed to permit the presence of the spokesperson, nor is he entitled to travel or similar expenses;

(3) be informed of the evidence against him relating to the offense;

(4) be allowed to examine all evidence upon which the commanding officer will rely in deciding whether and how much NJP to impose;

(5) present matters in defense, extenuation, and mitigation, orally, in writing, or both;

(6) have witnesses present, including those adverse to the accused, upon request, if their statements will be relevant, and if they are reasonably available. A witness is reasonably available if his or her appearance will not require reimbursement by the government, will not unduly delay the proceedings, or, in the case of a military witness, will not necessitate his or her being excused from other important duties; and

(7) have the proceedings open to the public unless the commanding officer determines that the proceedings should be closed for good cause. No special facility arrangements need to be made by the commander. Even if the accused does not wish the proceedings to be open to the public, the commander may open them anyway at his/her own discretion. In most cases, the commander will open them partially, and have present relevant members of the command (XO, first sergeant, supervisor, etc.)

The Manual for Courts Martial provides that, if the accused waives his right to personally appear before the commanding officer, he may choose to submit written matters for consideration by the commanding officer prior to the imposition of NJP. Should the accused make such an election, he should be informed of his right to remain silent and that any matters so submitted may be used against him in a trial by court-martial. Notwithstanding the accused's expressed desire to waive his right to personally appear at the NJP hearing, he may be ordered to attend the hearing if the officer imposing NJP desires his presence.

Normally, the officer who actually holds the NJP hearing is the commanding officer of the accused. Part V, para. 4c, MCM (1998 ed.), allows the commanding officer or officer in charge to delegate his authority to hold the hearing to another officer under extraordinary circumstances. These circumstances are not detailed, but they must be unusual and significant rather than matters of convenience to the commander. This delegation of authority should be in writing and the reasons for it detailed. It must be emphasized that this delegation does not include the authority to impose punishment. At such a hearing, the officer delegated to hold the hearing will receive all evidence, prepare a summarized record of matters considered, and forward the record to the officer having NJP authority. The commander's decision will then be communicated to the accused personally or in writing as soon as practicable.

Personal representative. The concept of a personal representative to speak on behalf of the accused at an Article 15, UCMJ, hearing has caused some confusion. The burden of obtaining such a representative is on the accused. As a practical matter, he is free to choose anyone he wants -- a lawyer or a nonlawyer, an officer or an enlisted person. This freedom of the accused to choose a representative does not obligate the command to provide lawyer counsel, and current regulations do not create a right to lawyer counsel to the extent that such a right exists at court-martial. The accused may be represented by any lawyer who is willing and able to appear at the hearing. While a lawyer's workload may preclude the lawyer from appearing, a blanket rule that no lawyers will be available to appear at article 15 hearings would appear to contravene the spirit if not the letter of the law. It is likewise doubtful that one can lawfully be ordered to represent the accused. It is fair to say that the accused can have anyone who is able and willing to appear on his behalf without cost to the government. While a command does not have to provide a personal representative, it should help the accused obtain the representative he wants. In this connection, if the accused desires a personal representative, he must be allowed a reasonable time to obtain someone.

Nonadversarial proceeding. The presence of a personal representative is not meant to create an adversarial proceeding. Rather, the commanding officer is still under an obligation to pursue the truth. In this connection, he/she controls the course of the hearing and should not allow the proceedings to deteriorate into a partisan adversarial atmosphere.

Witnesses. When the hearing involves controverted questions of fact pertaining to the alleged offenses, witnesses shall be called to testify if they are present on the same ship or base or are otherwise available at no expense to the government. Thus, in a larceny case, if the accused denies he took the money, the witnesses who can testify that he did take the money must be called to testify in person if they are available at no cost to the government. It should be noted, however, that no authority exists to subpoena civilian witnesses for an NJP proceeding.

Burden of proof. The commanding officer or officer in charge must decide that the accused committed the offenses(s) by a preponderance of the evidence.

Findings. After consideration of all the factors, the commander makes his/her findings:

a. Dismissal with or without warning. This action normally is taken if the commanding officer is not convinced by the evidence that the accused is guilty of an offense, or decides that no punishment is appropriate in light of his past record and other circumstances. Dismissal, whether with or without a warning, is not considered NJP, nor is it considered an acquittal.

b. Referral to a court martial, or pretrial investigation under Article 32, UCMJ.

c. Postponement of action (pending further investigation or for other good cause, such as a pending trial by civil authorities for the same offenses)

d. Imposition of NJP.

Information derived from Handbook of Military Justice & Civil Law, Courtesy of the United States Navy

wrbones
07-19-02, 01:42 AM
Military Justice 101 - Part IV

Nonjudicial Punishment

(Page 3)

Authorized Punishments. The maximum imposable punishment in any Article 15, UCMJ, case is limited by several factors.

1. The grade of the imposing officer. Commanding officers in grades O-4 to O-6 have greater punishment powers than officers in grades O-1 to O-3; flag officers, general officers, and officers exercising general court-martial jurisdiction have greater punishment authority than commanding officers in grades O-4 to O-6.

2. The status of the imposing officer. Is he a commanding officer or officer in charge? Regardless of the rank of an officer in charge, his punishment power is limited to that of a commanding officer in grade O-1 to O-3; the punishment powers of a commanding officer are commensurate with his permanent grade.

3. The status of the accused. Punishment authority is also limited by the status of the accused. Is he an officer or an enlisted person? If enlisted, what is his/her rank/rate?

4. The nature of the command. Is it a shore command or is the accused attached to or embarked in a vessel?

The maximum punishment limitations discussed below apply to each NJP action and not to each offense. Note, also, there exists a policy that all known offenses of which the accused is suspected should ordinarily be considered at a single article 15 hearing.

Maximum limits -- specific

Officer accused. If punishment is imposed by officers in the following grades, the limits are as indicated below.

a. By officer exercising general court-martial jurisdiction or a flag/general officer in command, or designated principal assistant:

(1) Punitive admonition or reprimand.

(2) Arrest in quarters: not more than 30 days.

(3) Restriction to limits: not more than 60 days.

(4) Forfeiture of pay: not more than 1/2 of one month's pay per month for two months.

b. By officers O-4 to O-6:

(1) Admonition or reprimand.

(2) Restriction: not more than 30 days.

c. By officers O-1 to O-3:

(1) Admonition or reprimand.

(2) Restriction: not more than 15 days.

d. By officer in charge: none.

Enlisted accused.

a. By commanding officers in grades O-4 and above

(1) Admonition or reprimand.

(2) Confinement on bread and water/diminished rations: imposable only on grades E-3 and below, attached to or embarked in a vessel, for not more than 3 days (USN and USMC only).

(3) Correctional custody: not more than 30 days.

(4) Forfeiture: not more than 1/2 of one month's pay per month for two months.

(5) Reduction: one grade, not imposable on E-7 and above (Navy, Army, and Air Force) or on E-6 and above (Marine Corps).

(6) Extra duties: not more than 45 days.

(7) Restriction: not more than 60 days.

b. By commanding officers in grades O-3 and below or any commissioned officer in charge

(1) Admonition or reprimand.

(2) Confinement on bread and water / diminished rations: not more than 3 days and only on grades E-3 and below attached to or embarked in a vessel (USN and USMC only).

(3) Correctional custody: not more than 7 days.

(4) Forfeiture: not more than 7 days' pay.

(5) Reduction: to next inferior pay grade; not imposable on E-7 and above (Navy, Army, and Air Force) or E-6 and above (Marine Corps), if rank from which demoted is within the promotion authority of the OIC.

(6) Extra duties: not more than 14 days.

(7) Restriction: not more than 14 days.

Nature of the punishments

Admonition and reprimand. Punitive censure for officers must be in writing, although it may be either oral or written for enlisted personnel. It should be noted that reprimand is considered more severe than admonition.

Arrest in quarters. The punishment is imposable only on officers. It is a moral restraint, as opposed to a physical restraint. It is similar to restriction, but has much narrower limits. The limits of arrest are set by the officer imposing the punishment and may extend beyond quarters. The term "quarters" includes military and private residences. The officer may be required to perform his regular duties as long as they do not involve the exercise of authority over subordinates.

Restriction. Restriction also is a form of moral restraint. Its severity depends upon the breadth of the limits as well as the duration of the restriction. If restriction limits are drawn too tightly, there is a real danger that they may amount to either confinement or arrest in quarters, which in the former case cannot be imposed as NJP and in the latter case is not an authorized punishment for enlisted persons. As a practical matter, restriction means that an accused will be restricted to the limits of the base except where the use of recreational facilities might be further restricted. Restriction and arrest are normally imposed by a written order detailing the limits thereof and usually require the accused to log in at certain specified times during the restraint. Navy regulations, provide that an officer placed in the status of arrest or restriction shall not be confined to his room unless the safety or the discipline of the ship requires such action.

Forfeiture. A forfeiture applies to basic pay and to sea or foreign duty pay, but not to incentive pay, allowances for subsistence or quarters, etc. "Forfeiture" means that the accused forfeits monies due him in compensation for his military service only; it does not include any private funds. This distinguishes forfeiture from a "fine," which may only be awarded by courts-martial. The amount of forfeiture of pay should be stated in whole dollar amounts, not in fractions, and indicate the number of months affected (e.g., "to forfeit $50.00 pay per month for two months"). Where a reduction is also involved in the punishment, the forfeiture must be premised on the new lower rank, even if the reduction is suspended.

Extra duties. Various types of duties may be assigned, in addition to routine duties, as punishment. Part V, para. 5c(6), MCM (1998 ed.), however, prohibits extra duties which constitute a known safety or health hazard, which constitute cruel and unusual punishment, or which are not sanctioned by the customs of the service involved. Additionally, when imposed upon a petty or noncommissioned officer (E-4 and above), the duties cannot be demeaning to his rank or position.

Reduction in grade. In the Navy and Marine Corps, regulations limit reduction in grade to one grade only. In the Army and Air Force, personnel in grades of E-5 and above can only be reduced by one grade, but personnel in grades of E-4 and below may be reduced to the lowest enlisted grade.

Correctional custody. Correctional custody is a form of physical restraint during either duty or nonduty hours, or both, and may include hard labor or extra duty. Awardees may perform military duty, but not watches, and cannot bear arms or exercise authority over subordinates. Time spent in correctional custody is not "lost time." In the Navy and Marine Corps, correctional custody cannot be imposed on grades E-4 and above.

Confinement on bread and water or diminished rations. This punishment can be utilized only if the accused is attached to or embarked in a vessel. The punishment involves physical confinement and is tantamount to solitary confinement because contact is allowed only with authorized personnel. A medical officer must first certify in writing that the accused will suffer no serious injury and that the place of confinement will not be injurious to the accused. This punishment cannot be imposed upon grades E-4 and above. Confinement on bread and water or diminished rations is not authorized in the Coast Guard.


Information derived from Handbook of Military Justice & Civil Law, Courtesy of the United States Navy

wrbones
07-19-02, 01:45 AM
Military Justice 101 - Part IV

Nonjudicial Punishment

(Page 4)

Appeals. If punishment is imposed at NJP, the commanding officer is required to ensure that the accused is advised of his right to appeal. A person punished under article 15 may appeal the imposition of such punishment through proper channels to the appropriate appeal authority.

Appeals must be submitted in writing within five working days (defined as any day that is not a Saturday, Sunday, or federal holiday) of the imposition of NJP, or the right to appeal shall be waived in the absence of good cause shown. The appeal period begins to run from the date of the imposition of NJP, even though all or any part of the punishment imposed is suspended.

If it appears to the accused that good cause may exist which would make it impracticable or extremely difficult to prepare and submit the appeal within the 5 working day period, the accused should immediately advise the officer who imposed the punishment of the perceived problems and request an appropriate extension of time. The officer imposing NJP shall determine whether good cause was shown and shall advise the accused whether an extension of time will be permitted.

Request for stay of restraint punishments or extra duties. A servicemember who has appealed may be required to undergo any restraint punishment or extra duties imposed while the appeal is pending, except that, if action is not taken on the appeal by the appeal authority within five days (not working days) after the written appeal has been submitted, and if the accused has so requested, any unexecuted punishment involving restraint or extra duties shall be stayed until action on the appeal is taken.

There are only two grounds for appeal: the punishment was unjust or the punishment was disproportionate to the offense committed. Unjust punishment exists when the evidence is insufficient to prove the accused committed the offense; when the statute of limitations prohibits lawful punishment; or when any other fact, including a denial of substantial rights, calls into question the validity of the punishment. Punishment is disproportionate if it is, in the judgment of the reviewer, too severe for the offense committed. An offender who believes his punishment is too severe thus appeals on the ground of disproportionate punishment, whether or not his letter artfully states the ground in precise terminology. Note, however, that a punishment may be legal but excessive or unfair considering circumstances such as: the nature of the offense; the absence of aggravating circumstances; the prior record of the offender; and any other circumstances in extenuation and mitigation. The grounds for appeal need not be stated artfully in the accused's appeal letter, and the reviewer may have to deduce the appropriate ground implied in the letter. Inartful draftsmanship or improper addressees or other administrative irregularities are not grounds for refusing to forward the appeal to the reviewing authority. If any commander in the chain of addressees notes administrative mistakes, they should be corrected, if material, in that commander's endorsement which forwards the appeal. Thus, if an accused does not address his letter to all appropriate commanders in the chain of command, the commander who notes the mistake should merely readdress and forward the appeal. He should not send the appeal back to the accused for redrafting since the appeal should be forwarded promptly to the reviewing authority.

The officer who imposed the punishment should not, by endorsement, seek to "defend" against the allegations of the appeal but should, where appropriate, explain the rationalization of the evidence. For example, the officer may have chosen to believe one witness' account of the facts while disbelieving another witness' recollection of the same facts and this should be included in the endorsement. This officer may properly include any facts relevant to the case as an aid to the reviewing authority, but should avoid irrelevant character assassination of the accused. Finally, any errors made in the decision to impose NJP or in the amount of punishment imposed should be corrected by this officer and the corrective action noted in the forwarding endorsement. Even though corrective action is taken, the appeal must still be forwarded to the reviewer.

As a preliminary matter, it should be noted that NJP is not a criminal trial, but rather an administrative proceeding, primarily corrective in nature, designed to deal with minor disciplinary infractions without the stigma of a court-martial conviction. As a result, the standard of proof applicable at article 15 hearings is "preponderance of the evidence" vice "beyond reasonable doubt."

Procedural errors. Errors of procedure do not invalidate punishment unless the error or errors deny a substantial right or do substantial injury to such right. Thus, if an offender was not properly warned of his right to remain silent at the hearing, but made no statement, he has not suffered a substantial injury. If an offender was not informed that he had a right to refuse NJP, and he had such a right, then the error amounts to a denial of a substantial right.

Evidentiary errors. Strict rules of evidence do not apply at NJP hearings. Evidentiary errors not amounting to insufficient evidence, will not normally invalidate punishment.

Lawyer review. Part V, para. 7e, MCM (1998 ed.), requires that, before taking any action on an appeal from any punishment in excess of that which could be given by an O-3 commanding officer, the reviewing authority must refer the appeal to a lawyer for consideration and advice. The advice of the lawyer is a matter between the reviewing authority and the lawyer and does not become a part of the appeal package. Most of the services now require that all NJP appeals be reviewed by a lawyer prior to action by the reviewing authority.

Authorized appellate action. In acting on an appeal, or even in cases in which no appeal has been filed, the superior authority may exercise the same power with respect to the punishment imposed as the officer who imposed the punishment. Thus, the reviewing authority may:

1. Approve the punishment in whole;

2. mitigate, remit, or set aside the punishment to correct errors;

3. mitigate, remit, or suspend (in whole or in part) the punishment for reasons of clemency;

4. dismiss the case (If this is done, the reviewer must direct the restoration of all rights, privileges, and property lost by the accused by virtue of the imposition of punishment.); or

5. authorize a rehearing where there are substantial procedural errors not amounting to a finding of insufficient evidence to impose NJP. At the rehearing, however, the punishment imposed may be no more severe than that imposed during the original proceedings, unless other offenses which occurred subsequent to the date of the original proceeding are added to the original offenses. If the accused, while not attached to or embarked in a vessel, waived his right to demand trial by court-martial at the original proceedings, he may not assert this right as to those same offenses at the rehearing but may assert the right as to any new offenses at the rehearing.

Upon completion of action by the reviewing authority, the servicemember shall be promptly notified of the result.


Information derived from Handbook of Military Justice & Civil Law, Courtesy of the United States Navy

wrbones
07-19-02, 01:48 AM
Military Justice 101 - Part IV

Nonjudicial Punishment

(Page 5)

Clemency and Corrective Action. Clemency action is a reduction in the severity of punishment done at the discretion of the officer authorized to take such action for whatever reason deemed sufficient to him/her. Remedial corrective action is a reduction in the severity of punishment or other action taken by proper authority to correct some defect in the NJP proceeding and to offset the adverse impact of the error on the accused's rights.

The following officials have authority to take clemency action or remedial corrective action:

1. The officer who initially imposed the NJP;

2. The authority who initially imposed the NJP (the office rather than the officer)

3. the successor in command over the person punished;

4. the superior authority to whom an appeal from the punishment would be forwarded, whether or not such an appeal has been made;

5. the commanding officer or officer in charge of a unit, activity, or command to which the accused is properly transferred after the imposition of punishment by the first commander; and

6. the successor in command of the latter.

The types of action that can be taken either as clemency or corrective action are setting aside, remission, mitigation, and suspension.

Setting aside punishment. This power has the effect of voiding the punishment (or any part or amount thereof) and restoring the rights, privileges, and property lost to the accused by virtue of the punishment imposed. This action should be reserved for compelling circumstances where the commander feels a clear injustice has occurred. This means, normally, that the commander believes the punishment of the accused was clearly a mistake.

Remission. This action relates to the unexecuted parts of the punishment; that is, those parts which have not been completed. This action relieves the accused from having to complete his punishment, though he may have partially completed it. Rights, privileges, and property lost by virtue of executed portions of punishment are not restored, nor is the punishment voided as in the case when it is set aside. The expiration of the current enlistment or term of service of the servicemember automatically remits any unexecuted punishment imposed under article 15.

Mitigation. Generally, this action also relates to the unexecuted portions of punishment. Mitigation of punishment is a reduction in the quantity or quality of the punishment imposed; in no event may punishment imposed be increased so as to be more severe.

Without increasing quantity, the following reductions by mitigation may be taken:

(1) Arrest in quarters to restriction;

(2) confinement on bread and water or diminished rations to correctional custody;

(3) correctional custody or confinement on bread and water or diminished rations to extra duties or restriction or both (to run concurrently); or

(4) extra duties to restriction.

The length of the deprivation of liberty or the amount of forfeiture or other money punishment can also be reduced and, hence, mitigated without any change in the quality (type) of punishment.

Reduction in grade. Reduction in grade, even though executed, may be mitigated to forfeiture of pay. The amount of forfeiture can be no greater than that which could have been imposed by the mitigating commander had he initially imposed punishment. This mitigation may be done only within four months after the date of execution.

Suspension of punishment. This is an action to withhold the execution of the imposed punishment for a stated period of time. This action can be taken with respect to unexecuted portions of the punishment, or, in the case of reduction in rank or a forfeiture, such action may be taken even though the punishment has been executed.

An executed reduction or forfeiture can be suspended only within four months of its imposition.

At the end of the probationary period, the suspended portions of the punishment are remitted automatically unless sooner vacated.

An action suspending a punishment includes an implied condition that the servicemember not commit an offense under the UCMJ. The NJP authority who imposed punishment may specify in writing additional conditions on the suspension.

Customized conditions of suspension must be lawful and capable of accomplishment. Examples include: duty to obey local civilian law(s); refraining from associating with particular individuals (i.e., known drug users); not entering particular establishments or trouble spots; requirement to agree to searches of person, vehicles, or lockers; to successfully graduate from a particular rehabilitation course; to make specified restitution to a victim; to conduct specified GMT on a topic related to the offense; or any variety of conditions designed to rehabilitate or curtail risk-oriented conduct.

Vacation of the suspended punishment may be effected by any commanding officer or officer in charge over the person punished who has the authority to impose the kind and amount of punishment to be vacated. Vacation of the suspended punishment may be based only upon a violation of the UCMJ (implied condition) or a violation of the conditions of suspension (express condition) which occurs during the period of suspension.

Vacation of a suspension is not punishment for the misconduct that triggers the vacation. Accordingly, misconduct may be punished and also serve as the reason for vacating a previously suspended punishment imposed at NJP.

Vacation proceedings are often handled at NJP. First, the suspended punishment is vacated; then the commanding officer can impose NJP for the new offense, but not for a violation of a condition of suspension unless it is itself a violation of the UCMJ. If NJP is imposed for the new offense, the accused must be afforded all of his hearing rights, etc.

The probationary period cannot exceed six months from the date of suspension and terminates automatically upon expiration of current enlistment.


Information derived from Handbook of Military Justice & Civil Law, Courtesy of the United States Navy

wrbones
07-19-02, 01:53 AM
Military Justice 101 - Part IV

Nonjudicial Punishment

(Page 6)

Imposition of NJP on reservists. Reservists on active duty for training, or under some circumstances inactive duty training, are subject to the UCMJ and therefore to the imposition of NJP.

A member of a Reserve component who is subject to the UCMJ at the time he / she commits an offense in violation of the UCMJ is not relieved from amenability to NJP or court-martial proceedings solely because of the termination of his / her period of active duty for training or inactive duty training before the allegation is resolved at NJP or court-martial.

Hence, the commanding officer seeking to impose NJP over Reserve personnel has the following options:

(1) Impose NJP during the active duty or inactive duty training when the misconduct occurred;

(2) impose NJP at a subsequent period of active duty or inactive duty training (so long as this is within 2 years of the date of the offense);

(3) request from the Regular officer exercising general court-martial jurisdiction over the accused an involuntary recall of the accused to active duty or inactive duty training for purposes of imposing NJP; or

(4) if the accused waives his right to be present at the NJP hearing, the commanding officer or officer in charge may impose NJP after the period of active duty or inactive duty training of the accused has ended.

(5) Confinement is not an authorized punishment without the approval of the Secretary of the service concerned for those Reserve members who have been involuntarily recalled for purposes of imposition of discipline.

(6) For those Reserve personnel who receive restriction or extra duty as a result of NJP imposed during a normal period of active duty training or inactive duty training, the restraint may not extend beyond the normal termination of the training period. This provision does not preclude a "carry-over" of awarded but unserved restraint at a later period of active duty training or inactive duty training.

(7) For those Reserve personnel who receive a restraint form of punishment from an NJP or court-martial for which they have been involuntarily recalled to active duty, such punishment cannot be served at any time other than a subsequent active duty training session unless the Secretary of the service concerned so approves.


Information derived from Handbook of Military Justice & Civil Law, Courtesy of the United States Navy

wrbones
07-19-02, 01:58 AM
Punitive Articles of the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ)

The Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ) is the bedrock of military law. The UCMJ is a federal law, enacted by Congress. Articles 77 through 134 of the UCMJ are known as the "punitive offenses," -- that is, specific offenses which, if violated, can result in punishment by court-martial.

The law authorizes the Commander-in-Chief (The President of the United States) to implement the provisions of the UCMJ. The President does this via an executive order known as the "Manual for Court Martial" (MCM). The MCM includes, and expands on the punitive articles. The MCM divides the punitive articles into six parts: The text, elements of the offense, an explanation, lesser included offenses, maximum permissible punishments, and sample specifications.

The Text: This is the exact text of the article, as Congress approved it in the UCMJ.

Elements: These are the specifics of the offense. In order to support a finding of "guilty," the government must prove each and every element of the offense, beyond a reasonable doubt.

Explanation: The explanation defines terms, and clarifies the elements, based on previous court decisions.

Lesser Included Offense: These are lesser offenses that a military court may still find an accused guilty of, even if the court finds the accused not guilty of the originally charged offense. For example, "Manslaughter," under Article 119 is a lesser included offense of "Murder," under Article 118. If a military court finds the accused not guilty of the crime of Murder, the court can still find the accused guilty of Manslaughter, without the government having to amend the charges.

Maximum Permissible Punishments: These are the *maximum* punishments that a general court martial can award toward a particular offense. While not specifically stated, a general court martial can also reduce a person's grade. Most general court martials reduce the convicted person's grade to the lowest enlisted rank (E-1) when punishment includes time in prison and/or a punitive discharge.

Sample Specifications: These are samples of how the charges would be written when referred to court martial.



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Article 77—Principals

Article 78—Accessory after the fact

Article 79—Conviction of lesser included offenses

Article 80—Attempts

Article 81—Conspiracy

Article 82—Solicitation

Article 83—Fraudulent enlistment, appointment, or separation

Article 84—Effecting unlawful enlistment, appointment, or separation

Article 85—Desertion

Article 86 - Absence without leave (AWOL)

Article 87 - Missing movement

Article 88 - Contempt toward officials

Article 89 - Disrespect toward a superior commissioned officer

Article 90 - Assaulting or willfully disobeying superior commissioned officer

Article 91 - Insubordinate conduct toward warrant officer, noncommissioned officer, or petty officer

Article 92—Failure to obey order or regulation

Article 93 - Cruelty and maltreatment

Article 94--Mutiny and sedition

Article 95--Resistance, flight, breach of arrest, and escape

Article 96--Releasing prisoner without proper authority

Article 97--Unlawful detention

Article 98--Noncompliance with procedural rules

Article 99--Misbehavior before the enemy

Article 100--Subordinate compelling surrender

Article 101--Improper use of countersign

Article 102--Forcing a safeguard

Article 103--Captured or abandoned property

Article 104--Aiding the enemy

Article 105--Misconduct as a prisoner

Article 106--Spies

Article 106a--Espionage

Article 107--False official statements

Article 108--Military property of the United States--sale, loss, damage, destruction, or wrongful disposition

Article 109--Property other than military property of the United States--waste, spoilage, or destruction

Article 110--Improper hazarding of vessel

Article 111-Drunken or reckless operation of vehicle, aircraft, or vessel

Article 112--Drunk on duty

Article 112a--Wrongful use, possession, etc., of controlled substances

Article 113--Misbehavior of sentinel or lookout

Article 114--Dueling

Article 115--Malingering

Article 116--Riot or breach of peace

Article 117--Provoking speeches or gestures

Article 118--Murder

Article 119--Manslaughter

Article 120--Rape and carnal knowledge

Article 121--Larceny and wrongful appropriation

Article 122--Robbery

Article 123--Forgery

Article 123a--Making, drawing, or uttering check, draft, or order without sufficient funds

Article 124--Maiming

Article 125--Sodomy

Article 126--Arson

Article 127--Extortion

Article 128--Assault

Article 129--Burglary

Article 130--Housebreaking

Article 131--Perjury

Article 132--Frauds against the United States

Article 133--Conduct unbecoming an officer and gentleman

Article 134--General article

--(Abusing public animal)

--(Adultery)

--(Assault--indecent)

--(Assault--with intent to commit murder, voluntary manslaughter, rape, robbery, sodomy, arson, burglary, or housebreaking)

--(Bigamy)

--(Bribery and graft)

--(Burning with intent to defraud)

--(Check, worthless, making and uttering--by dishonorably failing to maintain funds)

--(Cohabitation, wrongful)

--(Correctional custody--offenses against)

--(Debt, dishonorably failing to pay)

--(Disloyal statements)

--(Disorderly conduct, drunkenness)

--(Drinking liquor with prisoner)

--(Drunk prisoner)

--Article 134--(Drunkenness--incapacitation for performance of duties through prior wrongful indulgence in intoxicating liquor or any drug)

--(False or unauthorized pass offenses)

--(False pretenses, obtaining services under)

--(False swearing)

--(Firearm, discharging--through negligence)

--(Firearm, discharging--willfully, under such circumstances as to endanger human life)

--(Fleeing scene of accident)

--(Fraternization)

--(Gambling with subordinate)

--(Homicide, negligent)

--(Impersonating a commissioned, warrant, noncommissioned, or petty officer, or an agent or official)

--(Indecent acts or liberties with a child)

--(Indecent exposure)

--(Indecent language)

--(Indecent acts with another)

--(Jumping from vessel into the water)

--(Kidnapping)

--(Mail: taking, opening, secreting, destroying, or stealing)

--(Mails: depositing or causing to be deposited obscene matters in)

--(Misprision of serious offense)

--(Obstructing justice)

--(Wrongful interference with an adverse administrative proceeding)

--(Pandering and prostitution)

--(Parole, Violation of)

--(Perjury: subornation of)

--(Public record: altering, concealing, removing, mutilating, obliterating, or destroying)

--(Quarantine: medical, breaking)

--(Requesting commission of an offense)

--(Restriction, breaking)

--(Seizure: destruction, removal, or disposal of property to prevent)

--(Self-injury without intent to avoid service)

--(Sentinel or lookout: offenses against or by)

--(Soliciting another to commit an offense)

--(Stolen property: knowingly receiving, buying, concealing)

--(Straggling)

--(Testify: wrongful refusal)

--(Threat or hoax: bomb)

--(Threat, communicating)

--(Unlawful entry)

--(Weapon: concealed, carrying)

--(Wearing unauthorized insignia, decoration, badge, ribbon, device, or lapel button)

Information from Manual for Courts Martial (MCM) 1998

wrbones
07-19-02, 02:39 AM
Portable Collective Protection System


Primary function: Uncontaminated, positive pressure shelter for a chemical/biological environment.
Operational configuration: 300 square feet (27.9 square meters)
Storage/Shipping configuration:
Length: 9 feet (2.75 meters)
Width: 2.5 feet (.762 meters)
Height: 3.4 feet (.99 meters)
Weight: 673 pounds (305.54 kilograms)
Air Supply Rate: Supplies 200 cubic feet (6 cubic meters) per minute of clean air to the shelter
Temperature range: -25 to 120° F (-31.635 to 48.84° C)
Filter effectiveness: particulates 0.3 microns or larger in size
Unit Replacement Cost: $6,414

Features: The Portable Collective Protection System consists of the protective shelter, support kit, and hermetically sealed filter canister. The shelter consists of a tent and fly. The tent floor and fly are made of a saranaex composite material. An attached aluminum structure helps to support the tent. When overpressure is applied, the shelter will provide protection from liquid and vapor chemical agent penetration and biological agent penetration. An airlock allows decontamination of entering personnel. The support kit contains the accessories necessary for deployment of the system. These accessories are the motor/blower assembly that supplies air to the system and flexible ducts that guide the air to the HSFC and then to the shelter.
The hermetically sealed filter canister consists of a hermetically sealed aluminum canister containing a gas filter and particulate filter. The PCPS provides an uncontaminated, positive pressure shelter for use as a command and control facility or a rest and relief facility for 12 to 14 Marines at a time in a chemical/biological contaminated environment. Marines will be able to receive approximately 4 hours of rest and relief per day.

Inventory: 240 are currently in PWR.


Date last modified: 11/29/95

wrbones
07-19-02, 02:47 AM
I MEF

II MEF

III MEF

1st MEB

2d MEB

3d MEB

4th MEB




West Coast MEUS
Camp Pendleton, CA
11th MEU
13th MEU
15th MEU

East Coast MEUS
Camp Lejeune, NC
22nd MEU
24th MEU
26th MEU

Overseas MEU
Okinawa, Japan
31st MEU






Tip of the Spear

America's 911 Force in Readiness







The Marine Corps is a maritime force and is expeditionary in nature. In fact, the Marine Corps' history and legacy is a landing force from the sea. Today, Marines continue to be trained and equipped to come from the sea and fight America's battles. The unit in the Marine Corps specifically groomed for the contingency battles of the future is the Marine Expeditionary Unit or MEU.

A MEU is based on Naval vessels and is normally built around a reinforced battalion, a composite aircraft squadron, and by a MEU Service Support group totaling about 2,000 personnel in all.

Commanded by a colonel, the MEU is employed to fulfill routine forward deployments with fleets in the Mediterranean, the Western Pacific, and periodically, the Atlantic and Indian Oceans.

The MEU's very existence is vital because with the decline of American bases abroad, it's possible that the only U. S. forces available to respond to worldwide crisis quickly will be the Marines.

The MEU is an expeditionary intervention force with the ability to rapidly organize for combat operations in virtually any environment.

wrbones
07-21-02, 05:10 PM
From the USMC Homepage

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Marine Corps Doctrinal Publications (MCDPs): MCDPs are higher order doctrine publications containing the fundamental and enduring deliefs of warfighting (capstone publications: MCDP 1, 1-1, 1-2, and 1-3) and the guiding doctrine for the conduct of major warfighting activities (Keystone publications: MCDP 2,3, 4, 5, and 6).
MCDPs 1-0 and 1-0.1 translate the philosophical-based capstone/keystone publications into operational doctrine. MCDPs supersede selected Fleet Marine Force Manuals (FMFMs).


Marine Corps Warfighting/Reference Publications (MCWPs/MCRPs): MCWPs have a narrower focus detailing Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures (TTPs) used by the Marine Corps in the prosecution of war and other assigned tasks. MCWPs supersede selected Fleet Marine Force Manuals (FMFMs), Fleet Marine Force Reference Publications (FMFRPs), and Operational Handbooks (OHs).

MCRPs contain general reference and historical materials. MCRPs contain more specific/details TTP than the MCWPs. MCRPs supersede FMFRPs and OHs.

Last update: 01 July, 2002


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wrbones
07-22-02, 01:44 PM
........................Command, Control, Communications, and Computers .............7/22/02

Mission



C4 Mission

Director C4/Marine Corps CIO is responsible for planning, directing, coordinating, and overseeing C4 and IT capabilities that support the warfighting functions. The Department influences the combat development process by establishing policy and standards for developing the enterprise architecture. The intent is to achieve Joint and combined interoperability.

wrbones
07-22-02, 01:49 PM
Plans & Policy

Mission: Directs and coordinates the information management activities for the Marine Corps through internal matrixed relationships and the Joint Staff. Provides policy and advice to ensure that information technology is acquired and information resources are efficiently managed. Develops, implements, and communicates the Marine Corps information strategies and plans that support major functions and processes.

Networks/Information Assurance (N/IA)
Chief Information Officer (CIO)

wrbones
07-22-02, 02:07 PM
Major General (Select)
James F. Amos
Assistant Deputy Commandant for Plans, Policies and Operations Department, Headquarters, U.S. Marine Corps





Brigadier General Amos graduated from the University of Idaho in 1970. He was designated a Naval Aviator in 1971 and has held a variety of operational and staff assignments since 1972.

Operational assignments include tours with Marine Fighter Attack Squadrons 212, 235, 232 and 122 where he flew the F-4 Phantom II. In 1985 Brigadier General Amos assumed Command of Marine Air Base Squadron 24, later recommissioning it as Marine Wing Support Squadron 173. Completing Hornet transition in 1991, he assumed command of Marine Fighter Attack Squadron 312 and subsequently joined Carrier Air Wing Eight onboard USS Theodore Roosevelt(CVN-71). It was during this tour that VMFA-312 earned the Hanson Trophy as the Marine Corps' "Fighter Squadron of the Year." Brigadier General Amos assumed command of Marine Aircraft Group 31 Beaufort, SC in May 1996. During his two years in command, MAG-31 led the Marine Corps' Aviation Campaign Plan initiatives while deploying squadrons to combat both in the Balkans and the Persian Gulf areas.

Brigadier General Amos' staff assignments include tours on the staffs of Marine Aircraft Groups 15 and 31, and as the G-4 Logistics Plans Officer, III Marine Amphibious Force. He also served as both a flight instructor and Aircraft Maintenance Officer for Training Squadron Seven in Meridian, MS. Reassigned to The Basic School in 1988 he served as the Chief Instructor, Command and Leadership Group, and the Operations Officer. In 1993 he joined the team of the MAGTF Staff Training Program (MSTP) in Quantico, VA, serving as the Deputy Director. Promoted to Brigadier General in 1998 he assumed duties as Deputy Commander, Naval Striking Forces, Southern Europe, and as Deputy Commanding General, Fleet Marine Forces, Europe, Naples Italy. During this tour he served as the on-scene Commander during the evacuation of the American Embassy in Tirana, Albania, Commander of NATO's Kosovo Verification Coordination Center, and as Chief of Staff, U.S. Joint Task Force Noble Anvil during Operation Allied Force.

Brigadier General Amos was transfered in 2000 to the Pentagon where he was assigned as Assistant Deputy Commandant for Aviation. Reassigned in December, 2001, he currently serves as the Assistant Deputy Commandant for Plans, Policies and Operations Department (Code PL), Headquarters, Marine Corps.

Brigadier General Amos is a graduate of the Armed Forces Staff College, Norfolk, VA and the Air War College, Maxwell AFB, AL. His personal decorations include the Defense Superior Service Medal, the Legion of Merit (two awards), the Bronze Star, Meritorious Service Medal, Joint Service Commendation Medal, the Navy and Marine Corps Achievement Medal, as well as numerous campaign and service awards.

wrbones
07-28-02, 01:48 AM
Go take a look at the videos on this site.... www.lifelines200.org/module/brd-47k-26july2002

wrbones
07-30-02, 12:08 AM
Lieutenant General
Raymond P. Ayres Jr.
Commander, U.S. Marine Corps Forces, Atlantic





Lieutenant General Raymond P. Ayres, Jr. assumed command of U.S. Marine Corps Forces, Atlantic; U.S. Marine Corps Forces, Europe;U.S. Marine Corps Forces, South; U.S. Marine Corps Bases, Atlantic; Fleet Marine Force, Atlantic; and Fleet Marine Force, Europe on 8 September 2000.

Lieutenant General Ayres graduated from Iona College in May 1966 with a Bachelor of Science degree in Mathematics.

He attended Officers Candidate School, Quantico, Virginia in August 1966, and upon completion was commissioned a second lieutenant. After attending The Basic School and Vietnamese Language School, he served as a first lieutenant with 2d Battalion, 3d Marines in the Republic of Vietnam. His billets included: civil affairs officer, rifle company executive officer, rifle company commander, and assistant logistics officer.

As a captain he served with 1st Battalion, 6th Marines at Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. He commanded two rifle companies and the Headquarters and Service Company. He also served as both the logistics officer and assistant operations officer. Following completion of Amphibious Warfare School he commanded the Marine Detachment aboard the USS Franklin D. Roosevelt (CVA-42) for two years. Subsequent to that tour he reported to the Recruit Depot at Parris Island where his billets included: series commander, headquarters company commander and battalion operations officer, and recruit training company commander.

Upon promotion to major he was assigned as the Depot Provost Marshal and finished his tour as the G-3 Operations Officer. He then served for three years as the Executive Officer of the U.S. Marine Band at the Marine Barracks, Washington, D.C. His next assignment was as a student at the Marine Corps Command and Staff College.

As a lieutenant colonel he reported to the 1st Marine Brigade during June 1982 and was assigned as the Executive Officer of the Brigade Service Support Group until August 1983 when he assumed command of 1st Battalion, 3d Marines. He relinquished command in July 1984 and attended the Naval War College during the 1984/85 academic year where he was awarded a Master of Arts degree. While at the War College he also earned a Master of Science degree in Management from Salve Regina College. He reported to Headquarters, U. S. Marine Corps in August 1985 and was assigned as a Plans Officer in the Eastern Regional Branch of Plans Division.

As a colonel he has served as Commanding Officer, Marine Barracks, Guam; Fleet Marine Officer, U. S. Second Fleet; and Chief of Staff, U. S. Marine Corps Forces, Atlantic, Norfolk, Virginia.

As a brigadier general he served as Deputy Commanding General, II Marine Expeditionary Force, Camp Lejeune, North Carolina; Commander, Joint Task Force 160, Guantanamo Bay, Cuba in support of operation "Sea Signal"; and Commanding General, 3d Marine Division, Okinawa, Japan.

As a major general he served as the Assistant Chief of Staff, Combined/Joint-5, United Nations Command, Combined Forces Command, United States Forces Korea and as the Commander, U.S. Marine Corps Forces Korea.

As a lieutenant general he has previously served as Deputy Chief of Staff for Plans, Policies, and Operations, Headquarters, U.S. Marine Corps.

His personal decorations include the Defense Distinguished Service Medal, Defense Superior Service Medal, Legion of Merit with one gold star, Bronze Star with Combat "V", Meritorious Service Medal with two gold stars, Combat Action Ribbon, Republic of Korea Cheonsu Medal, and the Republic of Vietnam Cross of Gallantry with silver star.

wrbones
08-08-02, 11:37 PM
Drifter might recognize this one

wrbones
08-08-02, 11:59 PM
Here's a few more

wrbones
08-09-02, 12:03 AM
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wrbones
08-09-02, 12:08 AM
.

wrbones
08-09-02, 12:14 AM
Liberty, 1880 Norfork. Guess who gets to escort the Navy fellers "home" ?

wrbones
08-09-02, 12:37 AM
Sergent Major John H. Quick
USMC
Born on June 20, 1870 in Charleston W. Va. John Henry Quick enlisted in the Corps in Philadelphia on August 10, 1892. Participating in every campaign the Marines were involved in during his enlistment he was the holder of several awards for valor. In particular, an act written about by Stephen Crane, a war correspondent and novelist won him the Medal of Honor.

June 14, 1898 during the Spanish American war, two companies of Marines are tasked to capture Cuzco well, an important water supply in Cuba. As the Marines advanced on the well, they were attacked by the Spanish troops positioned in defence. The Captain in charge of the Marines signaled the USS Dolphin to provide naval gunfire in support of the Marines assault. As a result of poor positioning, the signal was misinterpreted and the Marines became the subject of "friendly fire." John Quick, then a Sgt., placed himself where he could be seen by the ships crew, stood up in the midst of the incoming shells and explosions and signaled for a cease fire. The flag he was using was not very visible, so the intrepid Marine shifted his position to the top of the hill. At this point, the Sgt. came under intense enemy small arms fire. he calmly turned his back to the enemy and continued to signal the ship. Letter by letter, sending Morse code he completed his message, picked up his rifle and rejoined the fire fight. ........"I watched his face, and it was as grave and serene as a man writing in his own library......I saw Quick betray only one sign of emotion. As he swung his clumsy flag to and fro, an end of it once caught on a cactus pillar. He looked annoyed." Wrote Crane.

During the Philippine insurrection Quick participated in the ill advised but heroic march across the island, Samar. (See index for L. W. T. Waller) The leadership and strong courage of Quick is credited with giving other members of that patrol the fortitude to complete that ordeal. "Stand, Marines, He served on Samar" became a standard greeting when any member of that unit entered a room for several years after this action in honor of the character displayed by the men of this patrol.

26 years of service as a Marine involved Quick in places which are legendary and still spoken of with awe by Marines to this day. The West Indian Campaign, The Spanish Campaign, Philippine Campaign, Cuban Campaign, Mexican Campaign and finally, World War I. An important time for the Marines, it was a period of deep and influential changes in the Marine Corps theory of operations, which remains valid, for the most part into today. One thing didn't change though, and that was the solid leadership displayed by this heroic Noncommissioned Officer.

During the Vera Cruz Campaign of 1913 he was again cited for valor during the assault of that Mexican city, for which the Secretary of the Navy commendation says of his performance: "He was continually exposed to fire during the first two days of the operation and showed coolness, bravery, and judgment in the prompt manner in which he performed his duties."

He spent only four years before he was again thrown into the burning cauldron of war. This time he sailed for France as part of the Marine Brigade, as Sgt. Major of a battalion of the sixth Marines. It was at Belleau Wood, where an Old World army was introduced to the fighting abilities of the modern U.S. Marines for the first time, that the Marines earned a new name, Teufelhunde-Devil Dogs. It also earned the Sgt. Maj. the Distinguished Service Cross and the Navy Cross.

Sergeant Major Quick retired from the Marine Corps on November 20, 1918, and died in St. Louis Mo., September 10, 1922, he was 52 years old.

wrbones
08-09-02, 12:58 AM
Awards, Medals, and Citations

Medal of Honor
For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of life, above and beyond the call of duty, in action involving actual conflict with an opposing armed force. This single directive governs the award for all three military service designs. (Army, Air Force, Navy)
Robert F Stryker Citation

Distinguished Service Cross
Awarded for extraordinary heroism in action against an enemy of the U.S. while engaged in military operations involving conflict with an opposing foreign force or while serving with friendly foreign forces. Army. Instituted 1918.

Silver Star
Awarded for gallantry in action against an armed enemy of the United States or while serving with friendly foreign forces. All Services. Originally Army only. Instituted 1932.

Distinguished Flying Cross
Awarded for heroism or extraordinary achievement while participating in aerial flight. All Services. Instituted 1926.

Airman's Medal
Awarded for heroism involving voluntary risk of life under conditions other than those of actual conflict with an armed enemy. Air Force. Instituted 1960.

Bronze Star Medal
Awarded for heroic or meritorious achievement or service not involving participation in aerial flight. All Services. Instituted 1944.

Purple Heart
Awarded to any member of the U.S. Armed Forces killed or wounded in an armed conflict. All Services. Originally Army only. Instituted 1932.

Meritorious Service Medal
Awarded for outstanding non-combat meritorious achievement or service to the United States. All Services. Instituted 1942.

Combat Action Ribbon
Given for active participation in ground or air combat in a specifically listed military operation. Instituted 1969.

Good Conduct Medal-USMC
Awarded for outstanding performance and conduct during 3 years of continuous active enlisted service in the U.S. Marine Corps. Instituted 1896.

Army of Occupation Medal
Awarded for 30 consecutive days of service in occupied territories of former enemies during the periods 1945-1955 (Berlin:1945-90). Instituted 1946.

Navy Occupation Medal
Awarded for 30 consecutive days of service in occupied territories of former enemies during the periods 1945-1955 (Berlin: 1945-90). Instituted 1948.

Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal
Awarded for participation in military operations from 1958 to the present not covered by a specific war medal. All Services. Instituted 1961.

Navy Expeditionary Medal
Awarded to participants in landings on foreign territory and operations, from 1936 to the present, against armed opposition for which no specific campaign medal has been authorized. Instituted 1936.

USMC Expeditionary Medal
Awarded to participants in landings on foreign territory and operations, from 1919 to the present, against armed opposition for which no specific campaign medal has been authorized. Instituted 1919.

Vietnam Service Medal
Awarded for service in Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia or Thailand during the period 1965-1973. All Services. Instituted 1965.

National Defense Service Medal
Awarded to any honorable active duty service during any of the following periods, 1950-54,1961-74, 1990-95. All Services. Instituted 1953.

Republic of Vietnam Campaign Medal
Awarded for six months service in the Republic of Vietnam between 1961 and 1973 or if wounded, captured or killed in action during the above period. All Services. Instituted 1966.

New York State Conspicuous Service Cross
Awarded to veterans of any military service who were citizens of the state at the time of active duty who received honorable discharges and any one of 32 qualifying federal service decorations. See your local County Veteran Service Agency for details and an application.

Republic of Vietnam Gallantry Cross
Awarded for deeds of valor and acts of courage/heroism while fighting the enemy. All Services. Instituted 1950.

Republic of Vietnam Gallantry Cross Unit Citation
Awarded to certain units of the US Armed Forces for valorous combat achievement during the Vietnam War, 1 March 1961 to 28 March 1974. Instituted 1966.

wrbones
08-09-02, 02:02 AM
Major General
James R. Battaglini
Director, Expeditionary Warfare Division (OPNAV N75)





Major General Battaglini currently serves as the Director, Expeditionary Warfare Division (OPNAV N75) Department of the Navy.

Major General James R. Battaglini received his baccalaureate degree from Mount Saint Mary's College, Emmitsburg, Maryland where he majored in accounting (1971). He also earned Masters degrees in Management from Salve Regina Newport College (1990) and in National Security and Strategic Studies from the Naval War College (1991).

His military education includes: The Basic School, Quantico, Va., (1971-72); Advanced Communications Officer Course, Quantico, Va., (1978-1979); Marine Corps Command and Staff College, Quantico, Va., (1985-1986); and the Naval War College, Newport, R.I. (1989-1990). He was commissioned a Second Lieutenant via the Platoon Leaders Class in May 1971.

Major General Battaglini's principal command tours include: Reconnaissance Platoon Leader with Company A, 3d Reconnaissance Battalion (1972-1973) and Infantry Platoon Leader with Company F, 2d Battalion, 3d Marines (1973-1974) in Hawaii; Infantry Company Commander with Company B, 1st Battalion, 9th Marines at Okinawa, Japan (1974); Guard Officer, Marine Barracks Naval Submarine Base, Bangor, Wash. (1975-1978); Headquarters and Service Company Commander (1979-1980) and Infantry Company Commander with Company C, 1st Battalion, 2d Marines (1980-1981) at Camp Lejeune, N.C.; Commanding Officer Recruiting Station, Richmond, Va., (1982-1985) and Commanding Officer Recruiting Station, Boston, Mass., (1988); Commanding Officer, 1st Battalion, 8th Marines, Camp Lejeune, N.C., and Battalion Landing Team 1/8, 22d Marine Expeditionary Unit (SOC)/CENTCOM ARG 3-91 (1991-1992); Commanding Officer, 26th Marine Expeditionary Unit (SOC), Camp Lejeune, N.C., Landing Force Sixth Fleet (LF6F) 3-95 (1994-1996);
Commanding General, Marine Corps Recruit Depot/Eastern Recruiting Region, Parris Island, S.C. (1997-1999); Commanding General 1st Marine Expeditionary Brigade/Deputy Commanding General, I Marine Expeditionary Force (1997-2001); and Commanding General, Third Marine Division (2001-2002).

His principal staff assignments include: Communications Officer, 1st Battalion, 2d Marines, Camp Lejeune, N.C., (1979-1980); Operations Officer, 26th Marine Amphibious Unit, Camp Lejeune, N.C. (1981-1982); Assistant Operations Officer, Marine Air Control Group-18, 1st Marine Aircraft Wing, Okinawa, Japan (1986-1987); Head, Enlisted Recruiting Operations, Personnel Procurement Division, Manpower Department, Headquarters, U.S. Marine Corps, Washington, D.C. (1987-1989); G-3 Operations Officer, 2d Marine Division, Camp Lejeune, N.C. and during Operations Desert Shield/Desert Storm (1990-1991); Chief, United Nations Division, Strategic Plans and Policy Directorate, J-5, Joint Staff, Washington, D.C. (1992-1994); and Military Assistant and Marine Aide to the Secretary of the Navy (1996-1997).

Major General Battaglini's military decorations include: the Defense Superior Service Medal; the Legion of Merit with Gold Star; Bronze Star with Combat "V"; Meritorious Service Medal with three gold stars; Navy and Marine Corps Commendation Medal; Combat Action Ribbon; and various unit awards.

(

wrbones
08-09-02, 02:07 AM
Lieutenant General
Emil R. Bedard
Deputy Commandant for Plans, Policies, and Operations





Lieutenant General Emil R. "Buck" Bedard assumed the duties as the Deputy Commandant for Plans, Policies, and Operations, Headquarters, U.S. Marine Corps, Washington, D.C. on July 25, 2000.

General Bedard graduated from the University of North Dakota in 1967. In addition to holding a M.S. degree, General Bedard's formal military education includes the U.S. Army Advanced Infantry Course (1973), Armed Forces Staff College (1980), and Army War College (1986).

General Bedard was commissioned a second lieutenant on December 1, 1967, and designated an infantry officer. While a lieutenant he served as a rifle platoon commander and company executive officer with 2d Battalion, 27th Marines and 3d Battalion, 3d Marines in the Republic of Vietnam. Subsequently, he was ordered to Quantico, Virginia, where he served as Commander and Staff Officer with Schools Demonstrations Troops.

As a captain he was assigned to the U.S. Army Intelligence School as an instructor, served as a company commander in the 3d Marine Division, Okinawa, Japan. He was the Marine Officer Instructor on the NROTC Staff at Vanderbilt University and a platoon and company commander at the Marine Corps Officer Candidate School, Quantico, Virginia.

As a major he served as Logistics Officer, 7th Marines and Executive Officer, 3d Battalion, 7th Marines.

Promoted to lieutenant colonel, he served as Assistant Operations Officer, I Marine Amphibious Force, G-3 and Pacific Plans Officer, G-5. Assigned to NATO in Holland, he served in the Central Region operations division in charge of reinforcement operations of allied forces to Central Europe.

Upon promotion to colonel he was reassigned to Twentynine Palms, California, where he directed the Combined Arms Exercise Program at the Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center. He became Assistant G-3 for Operations for the 7th Marine Expeditionary Brigade and the 1st Marine Expeditionary Force during Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm. From May 1991 through June 1993, he commanded the 7th Marine Regiment, which deployed to Somalia in December 1992. In July 1993, he was assigned as the Assistant Division Commander for the 1st Marine Division, Camp Pendleton, California. In October 1993, he was assigned as J-3 Operations Officer, Joint Task Force, Somalia.

In June 1994, he was advanced to brigadier general and was assigned as the President, Marine Corps University/Commanding General, Marine Corps Schools, Marine Corps Combat Development Command, Quantico, Virginia. He was assigned as the Deputy Commander, Marine Forces Pacific, Camp H.M. Smith, Hawaii in June 1995. Assuming command of 2d Marine Division in July 1997, General Bedard was promoted to major general on September 1, 1997. He relinquished command of 2d Marine Division in June 1999 and assumed command of II Marine Expeditionary Force in July 1999. On June 29, 2000, General Bedard relinquished command of II Marine Expeditionary Force and was advanced to his current rank.

His personal decorations include: Defense Superior Service Medal, Legion of Merit with Gold Star, Bronze Star with Combat "V", Defense Meritorious Service Medal, Meritorious Service Medal, Air Medal with numeral "16", Navy Commendation Medal with Combat "V" and two Gold Stars, Navy and Marine Corps Achievement Medal, Army Achievement Medal, Combat Action Ribbon with Gold Star, and the Republic of Vietnam Cross of Gallantry with Silver Star.

(

wrbones
08-09-02, 03:40 AM
Brigadier General
Thomas A. Benes
Chief of Staff, Naval Striking and Support Forces Southern Europe & Deputy Commanding General, Fleet Marine Forces Europe





Brigadier General Benes graduated from the University of Wisconsin with a Bachelor of Science Degree in Mechanical Engineering, was commissioned through the PLC program in May 1974, attended The Basic School, and was designated a Naval Aviator in March 1976.

After completing his F-4 training at VMFAT-101, he reported to VMFA-232, MCAS Iwakuni, Japan in January 1977 and served as the assistant S-4 and squadron Legal Officer. In October 1977, he reported to VMFA-115, MCAS Beaufort, SC and served as the S-2 and Pilot Training Officer. During his tour with the SILVER EAGLES, he graduated from TOPGUN, WTI, and deployed aboard USS Forrestal for a Mediterranean cruise in 1981. In October 1981, he was reassigned to the MAG-31 staff as assistant S-3, Group WTI and NBC Officer.

In June 1982, Brigadier General Benes reported to MAWTS-1, MCAS Yuma, AZ as an F-4 instructor and served as the Fighter Branch Head and Anti-Air Warfare Specialist for HQMC. Brigadier General Benes attended the Marine Corps Command and Staff College at Quantico in 1986, completed F/A-18 transition training in November 1987 and reported to MAG-31 for assignment to VMFA-333 as Operations Officer and Executive Officer.

Brigadier General Benes assumed command of VMFA-333 in June 1990. During his tour as Commanding Officer, VMFA-333 deployed to Southwest Asia and participated in combat operations during Operation Desert Storm. He was the last VMFA-333 Commander and retired the SHAMROCK Colors in March 1992.

In 1992, Brigadier General Benes was selected for Top Level School and attended the Industrial College of the Armed Forces and obtained a Masters Degree in Public Administration from George Washington University. Upon completion, he reported to the J-3, Operations Directorate of The Joint Staff, Pentagon, Washington, DC in July 1993 for a Joint duty assignment.

Brigadier General Benes assumed command of VMFAT-101, the Marine Corps' F/A-18 training squadron at MCAS El Toro, and served as Commanding Officer from September 1995 to June 1997. Following command, he was assigned as the Assistant Chief of Staff, G-3 Operations for Third Marine Air Wing. He was then selected for command of Marine Aircraft Group 31, were he served from April 1998 until June 2000. During his tour as Commanding Officer, MAG-31 squadrons participated in combat operations in the Persian Gulf aboard Navy carriers and to Hungary for Operation Allied Force.

Personal decorations include the Legion of Merit, Bronze Star Medal, Defense Meritorious Service Medal, Meritorious Service Medal with three gold stars, Air Medal with Combat "V" and four Strike Flight Awards, Joint Service Commendation Medal and the Navy Achievement Medal.

wrbones
08-09-02, 03:46 AM
Brigadier General
John W. Bergman
Commanding General, 4th Marine Aircraft Wing





Brigadier General John W. Bergman assumed the duties as the Commanding General 4th Marine Aircraft Wing on August 27, 2000.

Brigadier General Bergman graduated in 1969 from Gustavus Adolphus College with a B.A. degree in business administration. He was commissioned a Second Lieutenant in the U.S. Marine Corps Reserve via the PLC program in July 1969. Second Lieutenant Bergman received his Naval Aviator Wings in June 1970.

In October 1970, First Lieutenant Bergman transitioned to the CH-46 helicopter at HMM-261, Marine Corps Air Station New River, NC. He transferred to the 1st Marine Aircraft Wing in September 1971 and served with HMM-164, Okinawa/Republic of Vietnam. In November 1972 Captain Bergman was assigned as a flight instructor in the T-28 aircraft to VT-6, NAS Whiting Field, FL. In June 1975 he received an MBA degree from the University of West Florida.

Released from active duty in December 1975,he remained a member of the Individual Ready Reserve. In February 1978, he joined HML-776, NAS Glenview, IL and transitioned to the UH-1E helicopter. In May 1981 he transferred to VMGR-234 and transitioned to the KC-130 aircraft. While serving with VMGR-234, Major Bergman held the billets of S-1, S-3 and S-4. Promoted to Lieutenant Colonel in December 1986, he transferred to MTU-IL1, NAS Glenview, IL. In March 1988 he joined the Marine Corps Mobilization Station, Chicago,IL to serve as Logistics Officer.

In September 1988 Lieutenant Colonel Bergman became the first Commanding Officer of VMGR-452, Stewart ANGB, Newburgh NY. He rejoined MTU-IL1 in May 1991. In July 1992 Colonel Bergman assumed command of Marine Corps Mobilization Station, Chicago, IL. In February 1995 he began serving as Special Staff Officer at Marine Corps Reserve Support Command, Overland Park, KS. In January 1996 he assumed duties as Chief of Staff, I Marine Expeditionary Force Augmentation Command Element, Camp Pendleton, CA. In October 1996 he became Deputy Commander, I MACE. In September 1997 he transferred to 4th Marine Aircraft Wing, New Orleans, LA to serve as Assistant Chief of Staff/G-1. Promoted to Brigadier General, he became Deputy Commander, 4th Marine Aircraft Wing. In June 1998 he became the Deputy Commander, Marine Forces Europe, Stuttgart, Germany. During the Kosovo Air Campaign he was dual-hatted as EUCOM Deputy J-3A. In August 1999 he assumed command of II Marine Expeditionary Force Augmentation Command Element.

His formal schools include: Reserve Command and Staff, Marine Expeditionary Brigade Staff Planning, Aviation Combat Element Staff Planning, Strategy and Policy, Reserve Components National Security, and Reserve Amphibious Warfare.

Brigadier General Bergman's awards include: the Single Mission Air Medal with Combat "V"; the Strike/Flight Air Medal with numeral 1; plus additional citations and unit commendations.

(

wrbones
08-10-02, 03:00 AM
Major General
Martin R. Berndt
Commanding General, II Marine Expeditionary Force/Commanding General Striking Force, Atlantic





Major General Martin R. Berndt currently serves as the Commanding General, II Marine Expeditionary Force/Commanding General Striking Force, Atlantic, Camp Lejeune, North Carolina.

General Berndt was commissioned a second lieutenant in the Marine Corps upon graduation from West Chester University in 1969. After attending Vietnamese language school, he served as a weapons platoon commander with the 9th Marines on Okinawa and as a rifle platoon commander and company executive officer with the 7th and 1st Marines in Vietnam.

Between 1971 and 1980, he served as an instructor and platoon commander at the Officer Candidate School and The Basic School, as an officer selection officer in New York City, and as the operations officer of 3rd Reconnaissance Battalion.

In June 1980, Major Berndt reported to Marine Aircraft Group 26 where he served first as a member of the group staff, and then as the Commanding Officer of Headquarters and Maintenance Squadron 26.

Between 1984 and 1986, Lieutenant Colonel Berndt served as a political-military planner with the Office of the Joint Chiefs of Staff where he was responsible for development of the U.S. military commitment to NATO. Between June 1987 and June 1990, he served with the 2nd Marine Division as the G-3 Plans Officer, the Commanding Officer, 3rd Battalion, 4th Marines, and the Commanding Officer, 1st Battalion, 6th Marines. He also served a tour as the Executive Officer of Marine Forces Panama from September 1988 to March 1989.

The Berndts moved to Stuttgart, Germany in 1990 where Colonel Berndt served as a Middle East/Africa planner, as the U.S. Military Liaison to the West Africa Peacekeeping Force in Liberia, and as the Assistant Chief of Staff of Headquarters, U.S. European Command. He was then assigned as the Officer-in-Charge, II MEF Special Operations Training Group until he assumed command of the 24th Marine Expeditionary Unit on April 27, 1994. General Berndt served as the Deputy Commander, Marine Forces, Atlantic between 1995 and 1997. Subsequently, he served as the Director Joint Training at USACOM and simultaneously as the Commander of the Joint Warfighting Center. He most recently served as the Deputy Commanding General, Marine Corps Combat Development Command, Quantico, Virginia and assumed his present command June 29, 2000.

General Berndt has attended the Amphibious Warfare School, the U.S. Marine Corps Command and Staff College, and the U.S. Army War College.

His personal decorations include the Defense Superior Service Medal with Oak Leaf Cluster, the Legion of Merit, the Joint Meritorious Service Medal, the Meritorious Service Medal with two Gold Stars, the Joint Service Commendation Medal with a Bronze Oak Leaf Cluster, the Navy and Marine Corps Commendation Medal with Combat "V", the Navy and Marine Corps Achievement Medal, and the Combat Action Ribbon with one Gold Star.

(Revised Jul. 12, 2000)


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wrbones
08-10-02, 03:03 AM
Major General
Robert R. Blackman Jr.
USCENTOM Director, Resources and Assessment, J8





Major General Robert R. Blackman, Jr., currently serves as the Director, Resources and Assessment, J8, United States Central Command MacDill Air Force Base, Florida. Major General Blackman began this assignment in August 2001.

Major General Blackman was commissioned upon graduation from Cornell University in June 1970. After completing The Basic School, he served as a platoon commander and company executive officer in 1st Battalion, 4th Marines. In March 1972, he reported to Marine Corps Recruit Depot, San Diego, where he served as a series commander and Director of the Sea School until July 1975.

Following Amphibious Warfare School, Major General Blackman served as S-3A and a rifle company commander in 3d Battalion, 1st Marines. Assigned to the 3d Marine Division in January 1980, he served as the S-3 for 2d Battalion, 4th Marines. Upon return to the U.S., he served as the Plans Officer in the Officer Assignment Branch at Headquarters Marine Corps. After graduation from the Marine Corps Command and Staff College in June 1985, he was assigned to the Air-Ground Exchange Program with MAG-26 where he served as the S-3A and S-3.

Major General Blackman reported to the 2d Marine Division in June 1987, and was assigned as the Executive Officer of the 8th Marines. In May 1988, he assumed command of 3d Battalion, 8th Marines. Following the return of BLT 3/8 from a Mediterranean deployment with the 22nd MEU, he was assigned to Top Level School as a Fellow in National Security Affairs at the Kennedy School of Government. In August 1990, Major General Blackman was assigned to the Operations Division at Headquarters Marine Corps. From there he was assigned as the G-3 Operations Officer for COMMARCENT (Forward) in Southwest Asia. Upon return to CONUS in March 1991, he was reassigned as Head, Current Operations Branch, Headquarters Marine Corps. In July 1991, Major General Blackman reported to U.S. Central Command for duty as the Commander in Chief's Executive Officer. In August 1993, he assumed command of the 15th MEU. Upon completion of his tour with the MEU, in March 1995, he assumed duties as the Military Assistant to the Secretary

of the Navy. In August 1996, he was assigned as the President of the Marine Corps University. He was promoted to brigadier general on October 1, 1996. In July 1998, he was assigned as the Assistant Division Commander, 2d Marine Division, Camp Lejeune, N.C. He commanded the 2nd Marine Division from June 1999 to July 2001.

(Revised Dec. 26, 2001)


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wrbones
08-10-02, 03:05 AM
The USMC Homepage lists them all. General Officers, that is. Some of you folks might recognise a few of them

wrbones
08-17-02, 05:18 PM
War of the American Revolution



American Revolution 1775-1783
President: George Washington
Commandant of the USMC:
Capt. Samuel Nicholas 1775-1781
Manning of the USMC: 131 officers, 2000 enlisted
USMC Causalities: Dead- 49, wounded-70
Weapons Used:
.75 cal. Brown Bess musket

In Congress, Resolve of 10 November 1775
"Resolved, That two Battalions of marines be raised, Consisting of one Colonel, two Lieutenant Colonels, two Majors, and other officers as usual in other regiments; and that they consist of an equal number of privates with other battalions; that special care be taken, that no persons be appointed to office, or inlisted into said Battalions, but such as are good seamen, or so aquatinted with maritime affairs as to be able to serve to advantage by sea when required: that they be inlisted and commissioned to serve for and during the present war between Great Britain and the colonies, unless dismissed by order of Congress: that they be distinguished by the names of the first and second battalions of American Marines, and that they be considered as part of the number which the continental Army before Boston is ordered to consist of."

Campaigns and dates:

Raid on New Providence, Bahamas Mar. 2-3 1776
Alfred and Cabot vs. Brit ship Glasgow, Apr. 6 1776
Second Battle of Trenton Jan. 2 1777
Battle of Princeton, Jan. 3 1777
Reprisal vs Brit ship Swallow, Feb. 5 1777
Hancock vs. Brit ship Fox Jun. 27 1777
Raleigh vs. Brit ship Druid Sep. 4 1777
Randolph vs. Brit ship Yarmouth Mar. 7 1778
Boston vs. Brit ship Martha Mar. 11 1778
Raid on Whitehaven, England Apr. 22, 1778
Ranger vs. Brit Ship Drake Apr. 24, 1778
Penobscott Expedition Jul. 24 to Aug. 14 1779
Battle of Banks island Jul. 26 1779
Battle of Majarbiguyduce Peninsula Jul. 23 - Aug. 13 1779
Bonhomme Richard vs. Brit ship Serapis Sep. 23 1779
Trumbull vs. Brit ship Watt Jun. 2 1780
Alliance vs. Brit Ships Atlanta & Trepassy May 28-29 1781
Congress vs. Brit ship Savage Sep. 6 1781
Hyder Ally vs. Brit ship General Monk Apr. 8 1782
Alliance vs. Brit ship Sybylle Jan. 20 1783
Significant Events:

First USMC Amphibious landing
First time American Flag raised on a facility captured by the Marines
Captain S. Nicholas was the first officer of the Sea Services who's Commission was ratified by Congress
The mission of the Corps of that time was to provide Boarding Parties, Landing Forces and internal security aboard the ship.


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Jump to Battle: Select Battle War of the American Revolution 1775-1783 Quasi War with France, or the French Naval War 1798-1801 War with Tripoli / Barbary Pirates 1801-1805 War of 1812 Battle of Twelve Mile Swamp (Florida) 1812 Battle of Quallah Batto (Sumatra) 1812 Florida Indian War 1836-1842 Mexican War 1846-1847 Commadore Perry's Expedition Harper's Ferry (Virginia) 1859 U.S. Civil War 1861-1865 (Both US & CSA Marine Corps) USS Wyoming in Straits of Shimonoseki (Japan) 1863 Battle of Salee River Forts (Korea) 1871 War with Spain 1898 Philippine Insurrection 1898 Battle of Tagalii (Samoa) 1899 Boxer Rebellion or China Relief Expedition 1900 Panama 1902 1st Nicaraguan Campaign 1912 Invasion of Veracruz (Mexico) 1914 Occupation of the Dominican Republic 1916-1924 Occupation of Haiti 1915-1934 World War I 1917-1918 2nd Nicaraguan Campaign 1927-1933 World War II 1941-1945 Police Action / UN Korea 1953 Lebanon 1958 Thailand 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis 1962 Dominican Republic Intervention 1965 Vietnam War 1962-1973 (Officially closed 1995) Operation Eagle Pull, Cambodia 1975 Operation Frequent Wind, Fall of Saigon 1975 Mayaguez Rescue Operation, Cambodia 1975 Iranian Hostage Rescue attempt Iran 1980 Grenada 1983 Beirut, Lebanon 1984 Occupation of Panama, Operation Just Cause 1989 Operation Sharp Edge, Liberia 1990 South West Asia, Kuwait Liberation 1991 Somalia 1991 Haiti 1991 Yugoslavia Non-combat operations

wrbones
12-01-02, 11:38 PM
http://www.usmc.nps.navy.mil/professional.htm

wrbones
05-22-03, 11:07 PM
..and for the POOL-ees and DEPers of course. It's a lot of readin', but it's worth it.

wrbones
06-15-03, 09:29 PM
http://www.geocities.com/Heartland/6350/kbar.htm

The Original USMC Fighting Knife!
Here's the story of this famous KA-BAR ®



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The Original KA-BAR® - The United States Marine Corps World War II Fighting Knife. "An American Legend"

U.S.M.C Fighting/Utility Knife - 02-1217-K1. Hand crafted in Olean, NY. Features a 7" black powder-coated, non-glare blade of high-quality carbon steel with a hand-honed razor-shard edge, strikings of U.S.M.C. Handle is highly-polished compacted leather discs. 11-7/8" overall. Sheath is durable cowhide branded with the U.S.M.C. "Eagle & Globe" crest. Giftbox, complete with a reproduction of the original design blueprints for World War II and dated December 9, 1942.

The USMC Fighting Knife is famous in its own right, and has an historical background behind it that is an exciting adventure story and is now an American legend. This is the story of one of the world's most famous fighting knives.

Ask some World War II Marines what kind of knife they depended on during the war and you'll get only one answer - a KA-BAR!

Back in 1941, after the start of World War II, KA-BAR submitted a Fighting-Utility knife to the United States Marine Corps that was accepted as the standard issue for the Corps.

KA-BAR started supplying these knives and they soon became the prized possession of every fighting Marine. They depended on it for a combat weapon and for such every day tasks as pounding tent stakes, driving nails, opening ration cans or digging fighting holes (fox holes to the Army) - their KA-BAR was constantly at their side.

During World War II, the KA-BAR Fighting Knife earned the greatest respect, not only of the Marines, but also of those who served in the Army, Navy, Coast Guard and Underwater Demolition Teams, who were eventually issued the USMC/KA-BARS.

Years later, during the Korean, Vietnam and Desert Storm conflicts, many KA-BARS were reactivated into military service as World War II veterans, remembering how well the knife had served them, passed their personal KA-BARS along to their sons.

The dependability and quality of the wartime KA-BARS weren't the result of just a casual approach to the production of these knives. In addition to the constant on-premise quality control procedures of the US Marine Corps and Navy Supply Depot inspectors, Dan Brown, then President of KA-BAR, and the entire KA-BAR Company was dedicated to making this knife their contribution to the war effort. As a result of this personal involvement, quality went into the knife that assured its meeting all types of tests without failing. Even tough Marine Corps and Navy test were supplemented by additional trials, such as driving the blade deep into a 6" x 6" timber and straining the blade back and forth at extreme angles, constantly testing edge retention in cutting through all types of materials and submitting the leather handles to severe atmospheric and corrosion tests to be sure they would hold up under all conditions of cold, heat or jungle rot without loosening or decomposing. As a result, the many thousands of KA-BARs produced during World War II performed so well that the people at KA-BAR were very proud of the reports that came back from all areas of operations and the excellent reputation that had earned.

World War II ended and KA-BAR Fighting Knives went out of production until 32 years later when the original KA-BAR factory in Olean, New York and some of the craftsmen who worked on the original knife began production again to commemorate the 200th anniversary of the United States Marine Corps. KA-BAR wanted to recognize this great milestone in USMC history by issuing a "full dress model" of the original KA-BAR - a limited edition would be most meaningful to the Marines.

Throughout the production of the Commemorative a few KA-BAR senior employees proudly performed the same tasks they worked on during the years 1942 to 1945 when KA-BAR was making its contribution to the war effort. As a result the completed knives were a true "work of art", but retained the look, feel and performance of a battle ready combat knife. KA-BAR was proud to present Commemorative Serial No. 1 to the Commandant of the Marine Corps destined to be displayed in the USMC Museum at Quantico, VA. THE USMC Commemorative was so enthusiastically received that it became obvious that the old KA-BAR Fighting/Utility Knife had retained it notoriety throughout the years. The limited production Commemorative was very quickly taken up by Marines, knife enthusiasts and collectors and KA-BAR knew that it should now be returned to production, in its standard issue form, with all of the original specifications. Fortunately, they were available because the original blueprints were found in the company archives.

So the "fighting KA-BAR" got back into its original gear and today it continues to be a favorite among Marines who adopt them as their own personal option knife and carry them into active service, but it's also a favorite of adventurers, survivalists, outdoor sportsmen and, of course, knife collectors who know this knife - this "American legend" - above all, deserves a place in their collection. And so it is, not only in America, but throughout the world.


SPECIFICATIONS
Here are some of the original specifications that continue in the current production of this great knife:

Blades are Hi-carbon USSI 1095 steel hardened and tempered to resist breaking under severe pressure and to accept and retain a super sharp edge, but also an edge that can be restored with reasonable ease even in the field.

Blades are stamped from cold steel sheet. The mark side tang is deeply stamped KA-BAR, OLEAN, NY in capital block letters and the pile side tang with a bold U.S.M.C. Later in the war the KA-BAR Fighting Knife was also adopted by other branches of the service and were stamped accordingly.

The elongated oval hand guard is mounted above black fibre washers to separate it from the leather handle which could corrode the guard. The hand guard has an 8% bend toward the handle to deflect a wire., branch or another blade. On later models, when KA-BAR was trying to keep its production of blades applicable to any branch of service, it omitted the pile side tang stamp and put the service designation on the guards.

The leather handle of the KA-BAR Fighting Knife is formed by stacking 22 slotted genuine cowhide leather discs over the rectangular tang and then compressing them under great pressure to turn the discs into a solid unit - so solid in fact, it resists absorbing moisture or contamination of any kind and is highly shock proof. With the leather discs in place and still under pressure they are locked together by topping them off with a 3/8" solid steel pommel pinned right through the tang from side to side. With this accomplished the knife is assembled into one virtually indestructible piece and ready for the finishing operations of adding five grooves around the handle for a comfortable, slip resistant grip, polishing the leather and finally hand sharpening and honing the blade to a razor edge. The finished knife is then a truly battle-ready KA-BAR.

During the war period 1942 to 1945, the KA-BAR USMC Fighting Knife went through several changes and modifications, the most important of which involved the design and method of fixing the pommel to the tang. The first World War II plans specified a pommel about half the thickness of the final dimension approved and it was to be screwed on to the end of a threaded tang. This was soon improved, so as to better meet the extreme demands placed on the knife, by steel pinning the double thick pommels right through the tang the KA-BARs were ready to accept the challenge "beyond the call of duty."